Correlations of intrarenal mRNA levels for APRIL and BLyS and response to treatment. Box plots and bars show mRNA levels for APRIL (A) and BLyS (B) from the renal tissues of the non-responder (n = 18) and responder groups (n = 18). The mean mRNA levels for APRIL and BLyS from the non-responder group were significantly higher when compared to the patients from the responder group (*P = 0.02, #P = 0.007). Dots and bars in (C) represent the correlated expression of mRNA levels for BLyS and APRIL in the renal tissue of patients with LN (r = 0.692; P < 0.01). APRIL, a proliferation-inducing ligand; BlyS, B lymphocyte activation protein; LN, lupus nephritis.