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Table 1 Characteristics and pulse wave analysis for rheumatoid arthritis patients in both cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts

From: The role of inflammation, the autonomic nervous system and classical cardiovascular disease risk factors on subendocardial viability ratio in patients with RA: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study

  Rheumatoid arthritis patients
  Primary cohort (n= 220) Validation cohort (n= 127) Longitudinal cohort (n= 31)
Age (years) 61 ± 12 59 ± 13 53 ± 13
Sex female 176 (80) 103 (81) 21 (68)
Disease-related characteristics    
   Disease duration (years) 17 ± 12 10 ± 10 13 ± 13
   Rheumatoid factor-positive (%) 126 (79) n/a 23 (74)
   Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mm/hour) 12 (7 to 26) 22 (12 to 38) (n = 112) 10 (4 to 16)
   C-reactive protein (mg/l) 3 (3 to 12) 5 (3 to12) 18 (9 to 33)
   DAS28 3.29 ± 1.26 n/a 4.32 ± 0.87
   HAQ 1.6 ± 0.9 n/a 2.19 ± 0.42
Classical CVD risk factors    
   Body mass index 29 ± 6 33 ± 12 29 ± 6
   Current smokers 33 (15) 40 (31) 7 (23)
   Diabetes mellitus 17 (8) 10 (8) 0 (0)
   Dyslipidaemia 60 (27) 30 (24) 7 (23)
   SBP (mmHg) 134 ± 18 134 ± 18 130 ± 14
   DBP (mmHg) 79 ± 11 79 ± 10 81 ± 11
   Heart rate (beats/minute) 74 ± 13 68 ± 11 73 ± 12
   Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.0 ± 1.0 5.2 ± 0.9 (n = 114) 5.0 ± 0.9
   HDL (mmol/l) 1.5 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.7 (n = 102) 1.5 ± 0.3
   Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.3 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 0.4 (n = 95) 1.5 ± 0.6
   TC:HDL ratio 3.5 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 0.8 (n = 102) 3.5 ± 0.8
RA disease-specific medications    
   Methotrexate 124 (65) 76 (60) 19 (61)
   Sulfasalazine 44 (24) 0 5 (16)
   Hydroxychloroquine 50 (28) 0 4 (13)
   Leflunomide 15 (9) 16 (13) 0 (0)
   Prednisolone 48 (26) 85 (67) 6 (19)
   NSAID 34 (20) 3 (2) 6 (19)
   COX II inhibitors 12 (7) 0 (0) 2 (7)
   Analgesic 74 (40) n/a 8 (26)
   Folic acid 118 (63) 63 (50) 16 (52)
   Anti-TNFα 44 (20) 51 (40) --
CVD medications    
   Anti-hypertensive 67 (36) 68 (66) 6 (19)
   Anti-hypercholesterolemics 57 (31) 23 (18) 4 (13)
   Beta-blocker 20 (11) 28 (22) 2 (7)
   Calcium channel-blocker 24 (14) 19 (15) 0 (0)
Pulse wave analysis    
   Ejection duration (m/second) 312 ± 27 331 ± 26 320 ± 25
   Pulse pressure (mmHg)b 46 ± 13a 54 ± 14 -
   Mean pressure (mmHg) 99 ± 12 97 ± 11 99 ± 10
   Tension time index 2,424 ± 402 2,485 ± 441 2,359 ± 368
   Diastolic time index 3,493 ± 462 3,443 ± 472 3,523 ± 651
   SEVR (%) 148 ± 27 142 ± 25 157 ± 33
   Augmentation index (%) 33 ± 9 34 ± 10 32 ± 9
  1. Results expressed as number (percentage), median (25th to 75th percentile values) or mean ± standard deviation. COX, cyclooxygenase; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DAS28, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; n/a, not available; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SEVR, subendocardial viability ratio; TC, total cholesterol. aData only available for 147 patients. bData unavailable for longitudinal cohort.