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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Low-field magnetic resonance imaging study on carpal arthritis in systemic sclerosis - low-grade erosive arthritis of carpal bones is an unexpected and frequent disease manifestation

Parameter All SSc (n= 26) Diffuse cutaneous SSc (n= 6) Limited cutaneous SSc (n= 20)
Age (years) 56 ± 13 (32 to 75) 50 ± 9 (40 to 66) 46 ± 14 (32 to 75)
Sex (% female) 77 67 80
Disease duration (years) 7.9 ± 5.3 (1 to 19) 7.7 ± 6.0 (3 to 19) 8.0 ± 5.2 (1 to 18)
Modified Rodnan skin score 8.3 ± 6.1 (2 to 19) 16.3 ± 3.3 (12 to 19) 5.8 ± 4.3 (2 to 18)
Organ and tissue involvement    
   Pulmonary fibrosis 11 (42) 6 (100) 5 (25)**
   Pulmonary hypertension 5 (19) 3 (50) 2 (10)
   Cardiac involvement 6 (23) 1 (17) 5 (25)
   Gastrointestinal involvement 2 (8) 1 (17) 1 (5)
   Active digital ulcer 7 (27) 0 (0) 7 (30)
   History of digital ulcer 16 (62) 4 (83) 12 (55)
Arteriosclerotic disease 3 (12) 0 (0) 3 (15)
ESR (mm/hour) 19 ± 14 28 ± 20 16 ± 11
Antinuclear antibody positivity 23 (89) 5 (83) 18 (90)
   Anti-centromere antibody 11 (42) 0 (0) 11 (55)*
   Anti-Scl70 antibody 9 (35) 2 (33) 7 (35)
Medication    
   Immunomodulatory druga 10 (38) 2 (33) 8 (40)
   Steroids 6 (23) 1 (17) 5 (25)
   Iloprost 12 (46) 3 (50) 9 (45)
   Calcium-channel blockers 9 (35) 2 (33) 7 (35)
   Betablockers 1 (4) 0 (0) 1 (5)
   Bosentan 7 (27) 3 (50) 4 (20)
   Sildenafil 3 (12) 0 (0) 3 (15)
   Low-dose aspirin 5 (19) 0 (0) 5 (25)
RAMRIS 6.5 ± 4.7 (0 to 14) 5.4 ± 4.1 (1 to 12) 7.0 ± 5.0 (0 to 14)
Radiographs of the hands 21 (81) 4 (67) 17 (85)
   Signs of arthritis 2 (10) 0 (0) 2 (12)
   Acroosteolysis 9 (43) 2 (50) 7 (41)
   Soft-tissue calcifications 11 (52) 1 (25) 10 (59)
FFbH (% functional capacity) 68.7 ± 22.8 (33 to 100) 58.2 ± 25.2 (39 to 100) 71.9 ± 21.7 (33 to 100)
Health Assessment Questionnaireb 1.24 ± 0.64 (0.36 to 2.25) 1.54 ± 0.7 (0.36 to 2.08) 1.15 ± 0.61 (0.36 to 2.25)
  1. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation (range) or n (%). Only the Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (RAMRIS) for the clinically dominantly affected hand was analyzed. Percentages were rounded. ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Westergren's method); FFbH, Funktionsfragebogen Hannover (German-language standardized assessment questionnaire on physical function); SSc, systemic sclerosis. Significant differences: *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 between the groups with limited and diffuse skin disease as assessed by Fisher's exact test; P < 0.01 as assessed by the Mann-Whitney U test. All other comparisons were nonsignificant. aIncluding methotrexate, leflunomide, mycophenolate, etanercept, and cyclophosphamide. bValues calculated from the FFbH using the formula: HAQ = 3.16 - (0.028 × FFbH)).