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Table 1 Peak tibial forces during activities of daily living

From: Implantable sensor technology: measuring bone and joint biomechanics of daily life in vivo

Activity Peak tibial forces (xBW) Notes
Walking [4, 7, 70, 71, 76] 2.5-2.8 Laboratory floor
Stair ascent [4, 76] 2.9-3.2 N = 9
Stair descent [4, 76] 3.2-3.5 N = 9
Treadmill walking [71] 2.1 ± 0.2 1 to 3 miles per hour (N = 4)
Power walking [71] 2.8 ± 0.4 4 miles per hour on treadmill (N = 4)
Jogging [68] 3.1-3.6 Tumor replacement prosthesis (N = 1)
Jogging [71] 4.2 ± 0.2 5 miles per hour on treadmill (N = 4)
Stationary bicycling [71] 1.0-1.5 Level 1-5; 60-90 rpm (N = 4)
Golf (lead knee) [71] 4.4 ± 0.1 Left knee in a right handed golfer (N = 4)
Golf (trailing knee) [71] 3.0 ± 0.2 N = 4
Tennis serve [71] 4.2 ± 0.1 N = 4
Tennis forehand [71] 4.3 ± 0.4 N = 4
Tennis backhand [71] 3.5 ± 0.6 N = 4
StairMaster Level 1 [71] 2.4 ± 0.1 N = 4
StairMaster Level 3 [71] 3.3 ± 0.3 N = 4
Elliptical level 1 [71] 2.3 ± 0.2 N = 4
Elliptical level 11 [71] 2.2 ± 0.3 N = 4
Leg press [71] 2.8 ± 0.1 Foot reaction force = 1 xBW (N = 4)
Knee extension [71] 1.5 ± 0.0 Resistance = 0.2 xBW (N = 4)
Rowing machine [71] 0.9 ± 0.1 N = 4
  1. xBW, times body weight. Adapted from [81].