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Table 2 Association of classic risk factors and RA characteristics with insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in patients and controls

From: Impaired beta cell function is present in nondiabetic rheumatoid arthritis patients

  RA and controls (n= 200) RA patients (n= 101)  
    Unadjusted model   Adjusted model  
  β coefficient (95% CI) P β coefficient (95% CI) P β coefficient (95% CI) P
Insulin resistance (log HOMA-IR)       
RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 101, and controls, 99) 0.40 (0.20-0.59) 0.00     
GC-RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 56, and controls, 99) 0.14 (0.05-0.24) 0.00     
GC+RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 55, and controls, 99) 0.17 (0.10-0.24) 0.00     
RA features       
   Disease duration    -0.02 (-0.06-0.01) 0.19 -0.01 (-0.05-0.03) 0.59
   RF positivity    0.00 (-0.39-0.39) 0.99 -0.15 (-0.54-0.24) 0.86
   ESR    -0.00 (-0.01-0.01) 0.66 -0.01 (-0.02-0.00) 0.26
   CRP    -0.01 (-0.02-0.00) 0.05 -0.01 (-0.02-0.00) 0.07
   Current prednisone    0.23 (-0.14-0.60) 0.22 0.04 (-0.32-0.40) 0.81
   Prednisone, mg/day/previous 3 months    0.01 (-0.18-0.20) 0.94 -0.23 (-0.46-0.01) 0.47
   HAQ    -0.01 (-0.30-0.29) 0.97 0.12 (-0.18-0.41) 0.44
   DAS28    -0.00 (-0.14-0.13) 0.95 -0.05 (-0.17-0.07) 0.40
   Current nonbiologic DMARD    -0.28 (-1.35-0.79) 0.60 0.08 (-0.67-0.82) 0.83
Classic IR risk factors       
   Sex    -0.24 (-0.76-0.27) 0.35   
   Age    0.00 (-0.02-0.02) 0.83   
   BMI    0.06 (0.03-0.10) 0.0 a   
   Waist circumference    0.02 (0.01-0.03) 0.00 a   
   Triglycerides    0.00 (0.00-0.01) 0.07   
   Hypertension    0.48 (0.11-0.86) 0.01 a   
β-cell function (logHOMA%B)       
RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 101, and controls, 99) 22 (5-39) 0.01     
GC-RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 56, and controls, 99) 11 (2-19) 0.02     
GC+RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 55, and controls, 99) 8 (0-15) 0.05     
RA features       
   Disease duration    2 (-1-4) 0.27 1 (-2-4) 0.40
   RF positivity    10 (21-42) 0.52 11 (-19-41) 0.46
   ESR    0 (-1-1) 0.52 0 (-1-1) 0.61
   CRP    1 (-2-1) 0.32 0 (-1-1) 0.40
   Current prednisone    1 (-28-31) 0.93 3 (-26-32) 0.85
   Prednisone, mg/day/previous 3 months    2 (-15-18) 0.83 10 (-8-21) 0.36
   HAQ    -3 (-27-21) 0.83 3 (-20-26) 0.81
   DAS28    -1 (-12-10) 0.81 -0 (-11-10) 0.95
   Current nonbiologic DMARD    -16 (110-79) 0.74 -15 (-100-71) 0.73
Classic IR risk factors       
   Sex    -52 (-92--12) 0.0 a   
   Age    -1 (-3-0) 0.06   
   BMI    2 (-1-5) 0.16   
   Waist circumference    0 (-1-1) 0.67   
   Triglycerides    0 (-0-0) 0.90   
   Hypertension    10 (-21-41) 0.53   
  1. HOMA-IR and HOMA%B are considered dependent variables and were log transformed. β-coefficients are expressed log transformed. Β-coefficient refers to changes in insulin resistance (IR) or β-cell function (%B) outcome per unit increase in the indicated characteristic. Sex refers to the change from female to male; current prednisone to the change from not taking corticoids to taking corticosteroids treatment, and RF positivity, to the change from negative to positive rheumatoid factor. Adjusted model represents a model in which RA features are adjusted for the classic risk factors of the previous model with P < 20 (BMI, and hypertension in the IR model; and sex, age, and BMI for the %B model). See Table 1 for abbreviations and units. Significant associations (P < 0.05) are depicted in bold