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Table 3 Associations of proinsulin-processing metabolites with RA features

From: Impaired beta cell function is present in nondiabetic rheumatoid arthritis patients

  Β-coefficient (95% CI)    
Insulin and C-peptide (dependent variables)     
  log Insulin p M P log C-peptide P
RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 101, and controls, 99) 0.39 (0.14-0.64) 0.00 0.61 (0.32-0.91) 0.00
   GC-RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 56, and controls, 99) 0.14 (0.01-0.27) 0.04 0.20 (0.02-0.38) 0.03
   GC+RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 55, and controls, 99) 0.15 (0.06-0.25) 0.00 0.29 (0.17-0.40) 0.00
RA patients features (β 95% CI for RA, 101)     
   Disease duration -0.79 (-3.32-1.74) 0.54 -0.01 (-0.02-0.00) 0.07
   RF positivity -10. 9 (-46.9-25.2) 0.99 0.03 (-0.06-0.12) 0.51
   ESR -0.50 (-1.49-0.50) 0.33 -0.00 (-0.01-0.00) 0.12
   CRP -0.21 (-1.34-0.91) 0.03 0.00 (-0.00-0.00) 0.65
   Current prednisone 0.13 (-0.23-0.48) 0.48 0.10 (0.01-0.18) 0.02
   Prednisone, mg/day/previous 3 months -3.28 (-22.36-15.80) 0.25 -0.02 (-0.05-0.02) 0.16
   HAQ 3.03 (-20.32-26.37) 0.63 -0.02 (-0.09-0.05) 0.69
   DAS28 -0.21 (-10.89-10.49) 0.67 0.00 (-0.03-0.03) 0.99
   Current nonbiologic DMARD 23.58 (-63.53-110.68) 0.79 0.05 (-0.13-0.23) 0.61
logIntact proinsulin (dependent variable)     
  Intact proinsulin p Intact proinsulin/C-peptide ratio p
RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 101, and controls, 99) 0.81 (0.13-1.46) 0.02 0.55 (0.05-1.05) 0.03
   GC-RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 56, and controls, 99) 0.34 (0.05-0.62) 0.02 1.65 (-0.06-3.35) 0.06
   GC+RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 55, and controls, 99) 0.24 (0.05-0.43) 0.01 0.14 (-0.04-0.33) 0.13
RA patients features (β 95% CI for RA, 101)     
   Disease duration 0.03 (-0.46-0.51) 0.83 0.13 (-0.45-0.71) 0.96
   RF positivity 3.4 (0.25-6.51) 0.11 3.45 (-0.34-7.25) 0.15
   ESR -0.03 (-0.12-0.06) 0.92 0.01 (-0.11-0.10) 0.62
   CRP 0.02 (-0.07-0.12) 0.50 0.03 (-0.08-0.14) 0.47
   Current prednisone -0.07 (-0.73-0.59) 0.83 -1.40 (-5.30-2.50) 0.48
   Prednisone. mg/day/previous 3 months -0.11 (-1.86-1.65) 0.82 -0.05 (-1.83-1.73) 0.63
   HAQ 0.62 (-2.13-3.37) 0.75 1.23 (-1.99-4.46) 0.85
   DAS28 0.49 (-0.74-1.72) 0.65 0.39 (-1.03-1.82) 0.68
   Current nonbiologic DMARD 2.93 (-7.52-13.34) 0.91 3.40 (-7.45-14.26) 0.96
logSplit proinsulin (dependent variable)     
  Split proinsulin P Split proinsulin/C-peptide ratio P
RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 101, and controls, 99) 0.70 (0.38-1.02) 0.00 0.57 (0.30-0.88) 0.00
   GC-RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 56, and controls, 99) 0.19 (0.00-0.36) 0.04 0.16 (-0.02-0.34) 0.08
   GC+RA versus controls (β 95% CI for RA, 55, and controls, 99) 0.33 (0.20-0.45) 0.00 0.25 (0.12-0.38) 0.00
RA patients features (β 95% CI for RA, 101)     
   Disease duration -1.58 (-2.84-0.31) 0.01 -1.82 (-3.48-0.17) 0.02
   RF positivity 2.83 (-8.33-13.98) 0.60 5.11 (-8.54-18.76) 0.67
   ESR 0.08 (-0.39-0.22) 0.60 -0.02 (-0.39-0.35) 0.93
   CRP 0.16 (-0.18-0.51) 0.42 0.20 (-0.23-0.62) 0.33
   Current prednisone 0.57 (0.18-0.96) 0.00 0.41 (0.05-0.76) 0.03
   Prednisone. mg/day/previous 3 months -1.04 (-6.99-4.91) 0.98 -0.14 (-6.50-6.22) 0.71
   HAQ -3.17 (-11.15-4.81) 0.11 -0.35 (-10.84-10.14) 0.43
   DAS28 1.11 (-2.89-5.11) 0.82 -1.79 (-3.01-6.67) 0.67
   Current nonbiologic DMARD 15.28 (-15.93-46.49) 0.83 15.43 (-17.36-48.23) 0.73
  1. All β coefficients are adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index. All dependent variables are considered log transformed. Rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity, current prednisone and current nonbiologic DMARD are consider dichotomous variables. For abbreviations and units, see Table 1. Significant associations (P < 0.05) are depicted in bold