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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of potential risk factors during 12-month follow up in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE)*

From: Plasma levels of osteopontin identify patients at risk for organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Variable AMS < 3.7 AMS > 3.7 OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Osteopontin high 8 3 2.1 (0.39, 10.8) 0.4   
NGAL high 7 2 0.8 (0.14, 4.8) 0.9   
Cumulative prednisone exposure 12 3 0.7 (0.15, 3.2) 0.7   
Disease duration > 2 years 16 4 0.6 (0.15, 3.2) 0.7   
Renal involvement 22 7 1.4 (0.3, 8.3) 0.9   
Non-Caucasian background 25 10 5.4 (0.28, 104) 0.3   
Male gender 8 2 0.8 (0.04, 3.1) 0.9   
  ΔSDI = 0 ΔSDI > 0     
Osteopontin high 6 4 9 (1.5, 60) 0.015 7.5 (2.9, 20) 0.03
NGAL low 8 2 1.3 (0.21, 8) 0.9 1.16 (0.14, 9.3) 0.9
Cumulative prednisone exposure 11 4 2.8 (0.5, 14.7) 0.4   
Disease duration > 2 years 17 2 0.4 (0.08, 2.4) 0.4   
Renal involvement 24 5 2.1 (0.2, 20.2) 0.9   
Non-Caucasian background 28 7 3.4 (0.2, 68) 0.6   
Male gender 10 0 0.6 (0.008, 3) 0.16   
  1. *Except where indicated otherwise, values reflect the number (%) of patients. Odd ratios (ORs) were determined for each variable based on a yes/no determination in patients with pSLE (n = 42). Potential risk factors identified by univariate analysis (P ≤ 0.1) were included in the multivariate models. Total number of SLE patients with adjusted mean SLE disease activity index (AMS) in the top quartile (AMS > 3.7) is 10; total number of SLE patients with change in SDI (ΔSDI) greater than 0 is 7. SDI, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) damage index; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin.