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Table 1 Risk factors for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related gastrointestinal complications

From: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and upper and lower gastrointestinal mucosal damage

Risk factor
Age ≥65 years (especially >70 years)
History of peptic ulcer
Use of two or more NSAIDs at the same time
Concomitant therapy with antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, corticosteroids
and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Severe illness
Helicobacter pylori infection
Use of more gastrolesive NSAIDs [14]
   RR of GI complications <2: aceclofenac, ibuprofen and celecoxib
   RR of GI complications 2 to 4: rofecoxib, meloxicam, nimesulide, sulindac,
   diclofenac and ketoprofen
   RR of GI complications 4 to 5: tenoxicam, naproxen, difflunisal and
   indomethacin
   RR of GI complications >5: piroxicam, azapropazone and ketorolaco
  1. GI, gastrointestinal; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; RR, relative risk.