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Table 1 Overview of major epigenetic DNA and chromatin modification systems

From: Why is epigenetics important in understanding the pathogenesis of inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases?

System Abbreviation Class Substrate/mark
DNA modifications
DNA methyltransferases DNMT Writer Cytosine
Candidate systems: methylcytosine hydroxylation, DNA glycosylation, base excision repair and deaminases? - Eraser 5-methyl-C, 5-OH-methyl-C
Methyl-CpG binding domain MBD Reader 5-methyl-C
Histone modifications
Histone lysine methyltransferases KMT Writer Methylation (lysine)
Histone methyl-lysine demethylases KDM Eraser Demethylation (methyl lysine)
Chromodomain, Tudor domain, MBT domain, PWWP domain, PHD fingers, WD40 domain - Reader Methyl lysine
Protein arginine methyltransferases PRMT Writer Arginine methylation
Protein arginine deiminases PADI Eraser deimination
Tudor domain - Reader Methyl-arginine
Histone lysine acetyltransferases KAT Writer Acetylation (lysine)
Histone lysine deacetylases HDAC Eraser Deacetylation (lysine)
Bromodomain - Reader Acetyl-lysine
  1. For further details and nomenclature used, see [26, 91].