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Table 3 Comparison of rheumatoid factor + (RF+) and rheumatoid factor- (RF-) subgroups in terms of trait emotional intelligence scores and other characteristics

From: Possible rheumatoid arthritis subtypes in terms of rheumatoid factor, depression, diagnostic delay and emotional expression: an exploratory case-control study

  RF+ (n= 157)
mean (SD)
RF- (n= 65)
mean (SD)
t- value Effect size
(Cohen's d)
Personality facet Emotion expression 4.72 (1.29) 5.15 (1.34) 2.21* 0.33
Personality facet Optimism 5.23 (1.19) 4.94 (1.31) 1.60 0.23
Personality facet Happiness 5.34 (1.28) 5.04 (1.45) 1.53 0.22
Personality factor Well-being 5.11 (1.05) 4.88 (1.17) 1.44 0.21
Personality factor Emotionality 5.15 (0.73) 5.30 (0.82) 1.36 0.19
Personality facet Assertiveness 4.49 (0.98) 4.69 (1.05) 1.35 0.20
Personality facet Low impulsiveness 4.81 (1.01) 5.00 (0.92) 1.33 0.20
Personality facet Stress management 4.49 (1.00) 4.35 (1.14) 0.90 0.13
Personality facet Empathy 5.31 (0.74) 5.41 (0.87) 0.86 0.12
Personality facet Social awareness 4.90 (1.01) 4.79 (1.08) 0.70 0.11
Personality facet Self-esteem 4.76 (0.99) 4.66 (1.03) 0.69 0.10
Personality facet Emotion regulation 4.47 (0.88) 4.38 (0.98) 0.69 0.10
Personality facet Emotion perception 4.90 (0.89) 4.97 (1.01) 0.46 0.07
Personality factor Sociability 4.66 (0.85) 4.70 (0.87) 0.35 0.05
Personality facet Emotion management 4.58 (0.87) 4.62 (0.88) 0.31 0.05
Personality facet Relationships 5.67 (0.78) 5.68 (0.81) 0.11 0.01
Personality facet Self-motivation 4.93 (0.94) 4.94 (0.90) 0.10 0.01
Personality factor Self-control 4.59 (0.81) 4.58 (0.86) 0.10 0.01
Personality facet Adaptability 4.48 (0.98) 4.48 (1.10) 0.03 0.00
Global trait Emotional intelligence 4.87 (0.68) 4.87 (0.75) 0.02 0.00
Diagnostic delay (years from onset to diagnosis) 1.71 (3.33) 3.00 (5.23) 2.18* 0.30
Depression (months on treatment) 11.3 (33.0) 25.2 (72.7) 2.06* 0.26
Social class (8 = professional) 5.85 (2.11) 6.28 (1.73) 1.56 0.22
Age 49.1 (10.8) 46.8 (11.1) 1.43 0.21
Age of onset of symptoms 39.1 (12.7) 36.7 (14.6) 1.22 0.18
Annual Income (11 = ≥ £ 50 000) 5.30 (3.00) 5.64 (3.25) 0.70 0.11
Current smoker (1 = yes; 2 = no) 1.87 (0.34) 1.85 (0.36) 0.39 0.06
Exercise (hours/week) 1.75 (2.70) 1.88 (2.89) 0.32 0.05
Gender (2 = female) 1.93 (0.26) 1.94 (0.24) 0.23 0.04
Education (3 = university) 2.34 (0.77) 2.36 (0.78) 0.17 0.03
Alcohol (units/week) 7.52 (10.9) 7.33 (11.7) 0.09 0.02
  1. *P (value) <0.05.