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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Gene-environment interaction between body mass index and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) gene in knee and hip osteoarthritis

  Controls Knee OA cases Hip OA cases
Number 967 1042 1006
Age, years (SD) 63.5 (8.5) 68.1 (7.4)* 67.6 (7.1)*
BMD, z-score (SD) 0.6 (1.2) 1.0 (1.3)* 1.0 (1.3)*
Women, % 47.2 48.6 50.5
BMI (kg/m2), % prevalence    
<25 32.7 9.5 19.2%
25 to 30 43.2 36.0* 41.7*
>30 24.1 54.5* 39.2*
Nodal OA, % prevalence 10.3 28.8* 24.6*
Injury (knee or hip), % prevalence 16.8 32.8* 22.2*
Occupational risk factors, % prevalence    
None 61.8* 48.8 57.2
1 OA risk factor 12.5 14.3 12.1
2 OA risk factors 11.7 14.1 12.4
3+ OA risk factors 14.1 22.7* 18.3*
  1. The number per group, mean (SD) or percentage prevalence are presented. *P <0.01, cases versus controls. OA, osteoarthritis; BMD, bone mineral density.