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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in African black subjects with and without rheumatoid arthritis

From: Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with reduced adiposity but not with unfavorable major cardiovascular risk factor profiles and enhanced carotid atherosclerosis in black Africans from a developing population: a cross-sectional study

  Rheumatoid arthritis  
Characteristic Present (n= 115) Absent (n= 159) P-valuea
Demographics    
   Age, years 55.7 (10.3) 56.5 (10.9) 0.5
   Female (%) 89.6 86.2 0.45
Lifestyle factors    
   Alcohol use (%) 0 17.6 -
   Units per week, numberb 0 0.27 (1.08) -
Exercise (%) 41.7 42.8 1.0
   Hours per week, numberb 0.1 (1.0) 1.7 (2.4) 0.0004
Anthropometric measures    
Body mass index 29.2 (6.6) 33.7 (8.0) <0.0001
   <20 kg/m2 (%) 5.4 2.5 0.2
   20 to 24.9 kg/m2 (%) 25.2 8.8 0.0004
   25 to 29.9 kg/m2 (%) 25.2 23.3 0.8
   >29.9 kg/m2 (%) 44.1 64.8 0.0001
   Waist circumference, cm 93.1 (13.3) 97.5 (15.0) 0.01
   Waist/height 0.58 (0.09) 0.62 (0.1) 0.0003
   Hip circumference, cm 110 (18) 116 (15) 0.002
   Waist/hipb 0.85 (1.14) 0.84 (1.13) 0.4
Cardiovascular drugs    
   Antihypertensive agents    
   Use (%) 53.9 40.2 0.02
   Number 1.0 (1.1) 0.5 (0.7) <0.0001
   >1 agent (%) 36.5 8.8 <0.0001
   Diuretic (%) 38.3 39.0 1.0
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (%) 40.8 6.9 <0.0001
   Calcium channel blocker (%) 16.5 5.0 0.002
   Beta blocker (%) 3.5 0 -
   Angiotensin receptor blocker (%) 0.9 0 -
   Glucose lowering agents    
   Oral glucose lowering agent (%) 13.9 10.1 0.3
   Insulin (%) 0.9 2.5 0.3
   Statin (%) 19.1 0 -
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent (%) 6.1 4.4 0.6
Rheumatoid arthritis characteristics    
   Disease duration, years 12.5 (8.8)   
   Clinical Disease Activity Indexb [58] 8.3 (2.6)   
   <2.8 or remission (%) 17.4   
   2.7 to 10 or mild disease activity (%) 29.6   
   11 to 22 or moderate disease activity (%) 40.0   
   >22 or high disease activity (%) 13.0   
   Deformed joints, numberb 6.2 (2.7)   
   Rheumatoid factor positive (%) 76.5   
   Disease modifying agents    
   Methotrexate (%) 92.2   
   Chloroquine (%) 80.9   
   Sulphasalazine (%) 25.2   
   Leflunomide (%) 20.0   
   Azathioprine (%) 14.8   
   Tetracyclin (%) 10.4   
   Cyclophosphamide (%) 6.1   
   Penicillamine (%) 2.6   
  1. Results are expressed as mean (SD) or proportions/percentages. aExcept for associations between rheumatoid arthritis status and demographic characteristics, adjusted for age and gender; bnon-normally distributed variables for which geometric mean (SD) is given.