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Table 2 Conventional cardiovascular risk factors, systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis in African black subjects by RA status

From: Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with reduced adiposity but not with unfavorable major cardiovascular risk factor profiles and enhanced carotid atherosclerosis in black Africans from a developing population: a cross-sectional study

  Rheumatoid arthritis Adjusted models
Characteristic Present (n= 115) Absent (n= 159) Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d Model 5e
Categorical variables    OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Hypertension (%) 74.8 65.4 1.65 (0.95 to 2.96) 1.66 (0.94 to 2.96) 2.03 (1.07 to 3.85) - 1.88 (0.97 to 3.67)
T chol/HDL chol >4 21.6 33.5 0.54 (0.30 to 1.00) 0.73 (0.40 to 1.33) 0.64 (0.31 to 1.30) 0.87 (0.31 to 3.07) 0.88 (0.28 to 2.79)
Smoking        
Ever (%) 16.5 14.5 1.37 (0.66 to 2.85) - - - -
Former (%) 13.0 6.9 2.48 (1.03 to 5.99) - - - -
Current (%) 3.5 7.6 0.46 (0.14 to 1.51) - - - -
Diabetes (%) 15.7 12.0 1.41 (0.69 to 2.85) 1.87 (0.86 to 4.06) - 1.48 (0.37 to 5.99) 1.53 (0.38 to 6.28)
≥1 major RF (%) 75.7 78.1 0.87 (0.49 to 1.53) 0.86 (0.48 to 1.53) 0.66 (0.24 to 1.81) 1.23 (0.34 to 4.12) 0.88 (0.28 to 3.79)
Continuous variables    Partial R P Partial R P Partial R P Partial R P Partial R P
Blood pressure values        
Systolic BP, mmHg 140 (25) 137 (22) 0.064 0.3 0.035 0.6 0.080 0.2 - 0.092 0.2
Diastolic BP, mmHg 86 (15) 87 (13) -0.038 0.5 -0.031 0.6 -0.008 0.9 - -0.017 0.8
Lipid values        
T chol, mmol/l 4.7 (0.9) 5.1 (1.2) -0.145 0.02 -0.112 0.08 -0.126 0.045 -0.075 0.2 -0.072 0.3
HDL cholf, mmol/l 1.48 (1.33) 1.39 (1.32) 0.112 0.07 0.082 0.2 0.094 0.1 -0.001 1.0 0.026 0.7
T chol/HDL chol 3.2 (1.0) 3.7 (1.3) -0.180 0.003 -0.134 0.03 -0.155 0.01 -0.041 0.5 -0.064 0.4
LDL chol, mmol/l 2.6 (0.8) 3.0 (1.0) -0.173 0.005 -0.133 0.04 -0.146 0.02 -0.096 0.1 -0.120 0.09
LDL chol/HDL cholf 1.68 (1.55) 2.02 (1.59) -0.179 0.004 -0.134 0.03 -0.147 0.02 -0.070 0.3 -0.110 0.1
Non HDL, mmol/l 3.1 (0.9) 3.6 (1.2) -0.190 0.002 -0.145 0.02 -0.165 0.009 -0.081 0.2 -0.090 0.2
Trigf, mmol/l 1.08 (1.70) 1.20 (1.59) -0.118 0.06 -0.093 0.14 -0.119 0.06 -0.058 0.4 -0.041 0.6
Trig/HDL cholf 0.73 (2.02) 0.87 (1.83) -0.139 0.02 -0.110 0.08 -0.135 0.03 -0.046 0.5 -0.046 0.6
Smokingf, cigarettes/d 0.05 (0.36) 0.15 (0.68) -0.096 0.1 - - - -
Glucose f, mmol/l 5.2 (1.4) 5.5 (1.4) -0.117 0.06 -0.090 0.2 - -0.095 0.1 -0.088 0.2
Major RF, number 1.1 (0.8) 1.2 (0.9) -0.024 0.7 0.010 0.9 0.008 0.9 0.035 0.6 0.023 0.7
10 year risk for CHD f 2.5 (3.0) 3.2 (3.2) -0.103 0.1 -0.090 0.2 -0.057 0.4 -0.042 0.5 -0.012 0.9
10 year risk for CVD f 9.3 (2.2) 10.4 (2.4) -0.050 0.4 -0.012 0.9 0.035 0.6 0.001 1.0 -0.002 1.0
Systemic inflammation        
CRP, mg/l f 7.2 (3.1) 6.7 (3.1) 0.024 0.7 0.099 0.1 - - -
Interleukin-6, pg/ml f 3.9 (1.9) 6.3 (1.9) -0.344 <0.0001 -0.296 <0.0001 - - -
Atherosclerosis        
cIMT, mm 0.700 (0.085) 0.701 (0.111) 0.025 0.7 0.062 0.4 0.076 0.3 0.013 0.9 0.036 0.7
  1. Results are expressed as mean (SD) or proportions/percentages. Significant associations are shown in bold. aAdjusted for age and sex; badditionally adjusted for body mass index and waist to height ratio; cadditionally adjusted for leflunomide use; dadditionally adjusted for chloroquine use; eadditionally adjusted for serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 concentrations; the number of antihypertensive agents employed and use of statins and oral glucose lowering agents as well as insulin were additionally adjusted for in models that included blood pressure and lipid variables and glucose concentrations, respectively; fnon-normally distributed variables for which geometric mean (SD) is given. RA, rheumatoid arthritis; BP, blood pressure; CHD, coronary heart disease; cIMT, common carotid intima-media thickness; CRP, C-reactive protein; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HDL chol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; trig, triglycerides; LDL chol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; RF, risk factors; T chol, total cholesterol