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Table 2 Association between sociodemographic, general health and disease-specific variables to functional disabilitya

From: Gout impacts on function and health-related quality of life beyond associated risk factors and medical conditions: results from the KING observational study of the Italian Society for Rheumatology (SIR)

Variable HAQ-DI
  Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) b Adjusted OR (95% CI) c
Sociodemographic    
Gender (female vs. male) 6.27 (3.37, 11.64)   
Age (5 years) 1.28 (1.15, 1.44)   
Education    
   No or primary Reference   
   Secondary 0.48 (0.27, 0.84) 0.66 (0.36, 1.20)  
   Upper secondary 0.21 (0.10, 0.42) 0.27 (0.13, 0.56)  
   Tertiary 0.17 (0.05, 0.57) 0.19 (0.05, 0.73)  
Employment    
   Employed Reference   
   Unemployed 5.85 (2.21, 15.48) 2.49 (0.85, 7.31)  
   Retired 3.57 (1.81, 7.03) 2.21 (0.92, 5.28)  
   Unknown - -  
General health variables    
Comorbidity index 1.22 (1.15, 1.29) 1.16 (1.09, 1.24)  
Body mass index    
   Normal Reference   
   Overweight 1.82 (0.90, 3.68) 2.44 (1.14, 5.22)  
   Obese 2.71 (1.28, 5.73) 4.02 (1.78, 9.07)  
Current smokers 0.99 (0.53, 1.85) 1.37 (0.71, 2.64)  
High alcohol consumers 0.96 (0.59, 1.54) 1.46 (0.87, 2.45)  
Gout-related variables    
Disease duration (>5 years) 1.98 (1.24, 3.14) 2.12 (1.30, 3.46) 2.03 (1.22, 3.40)
Joint involvement    
   Monoarticular Reference   
   Oligoarticular (2 to 4 joints) 1.75 (0.89, 3.45) 1.99 (0.96, 4.09) 1.49 (0.70, 3.16)
   Polyarticular (>4 joints) 3.67 (1.72, 7.82) 4.88 (2.17, 10.97) 3.82 (1.63, 8.95)
Number of attacks last year 1.10 (1.05, 1.17) 1.13 (1.06, 1.20) 1.11 (1.04, 1.18)
Attacks last month 1.89 (1.17, 3.04) 2.33 (1.40, 3.89) 2.20 (1.27, 3.81)
Presence of tophi 2.14 (1.28, 3.59) 2.06 (1.19, 3.56) 1.92 (1.07, 3.43)
Number of swollen joints 1.25 (1.16, 1.35) 1.25 (1.15, 1.35) 1.23 (1.13, 1.33)
Number of tender joints 1.14 (1.10, 1.19) 1.13 (1.08, 1.18) 1.10 (1.06, 1.15)
Serum uric acid    
   <5 mg/dl Reference   
   5 to 6 mg/dl 1.18 (0.57, 2.42) 1.25 (0.58, 2.69) 1.24 (0.56, 2.74)
   6 to 7 mg/dl 0.94 (0.42, 2.10) 1.20 (0.51, 2.79) 0.83 (0.34, 2.06)
   >7 mg/dl 1.72 (0.89, 3.32) 2.49 (1.22, 5.06) 1.81 (0.87, 3.74)
Urate-lowering treatment 1.02 (0.57, 1.81) 1.11 (0.59, 2.09) 1.06 (0.55, 2.03)
Current NSAIDs or colchicine 3.17 (1.89, 5.33) 3.24 (1.87, 5.61) 2.57 (1.40, 4.72)
Previous corticosteroids 1.87 (1.15, 3.05) 1.76 (1.04, 2.97) 1.64 (0.93, 2.89)
  1. NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. aAssessed by the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). bAdjusted for age and gender. cAdjusted for age, gender, comorbidities, body mass index, smoking, high alcohol consumption, education and employment (on 10 imputed datasets).