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Table 1 Growth factors identified within platelet-rich plasma and their biological functions

From: Enhancing intervertebral disc repair and regeneration through biology: platelet-rich plasma as an alternative strategy

Name Abbreviation Function
Platelet-derived growth factor PDGF Stimulation of fibroblast production, chemotaxis, transforming growth factor-β1, collagen production; upregulation of proteoglycan synthesis of fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells
Insulin-like growth factor-1 IGF1 Promotion of cell growth, differentiation, recruitment in bone, blood vessel, skin, other tissues; upregulation of collagen synthesis with PDGF of fibroblasts
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 TGF-β1 Promotion of fibroblast proliferation, extracellular matrix formation, cell viability, production of collagen from fibroblasts; suppressed interleukin 1-mediated effects on proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage
Vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF Promotion of cell growth, migration, new blood vessel growth and anti-apoptosis (anti-cell death) of blood vessel cells
Basic fibroblastic growth factor bFGF Stimulation of collagen production, angiogenesis and myoblast proliferation
Epidermal growth factor EGF Promotion of cell recruitment, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, cytokine secretion by mesenchymal and epithelial cells
Connective tissue growth factor CTGF Promotion of angiogenesis, cartilage regeneration, fibrosis, platelet adhesion
  1. In view of the multiple biologically active growth factors stored in platelets, the table presents a broad but also far from complete view of the effects of the growth factors.