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Table 2 The in vitro and in vivo influence of growth factors present in platelet-rich plasma

From: Enhancing intervertebral disc repair and regeneration through biology: platelet-rich plasma as an alternative strategy

Growth factor Dose Species Target cell type/tissue/animal model Cellular scaffold Outcome Study Year
In vitro        
PDGF 100 ng/ml Human Annulus fibrosus cells None Significant reduction in the percentage of apoptotic cells Gruber et al.[30] 1997
  1-20 ng/ml Bovine Coccygeal nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells None Improved proliferation Pratsinis and Kletsas [35] 2007
IGF1 20 ng/ml Mature canine Intervertebral disc tissues None Increased matrix synthesis and cell proliferation Thompson et al.[32] 1991
  1-1,000 ng/ml Bovine Nucleus pulposus cells None Increased proteoglycan synthesis Osada et al.[29] 1996
  20-500 ng/ml Human Annulus fibrosus cells None Significant reduction in the percentage of apoptotic cells Gruber et al.[34] 2000
  5-200 ng/ml Bovine Coccygeal nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells None Improved proliferation Pratsinis and Kletsas [35] 2007
  5 ng/ml E19 rat Annulus fibrosus cells None Upregulation of extracellular matrix Hayes et al.[33] 2011
TGF-β1 1 ng/ml Mature canine Intervertebral disc tissues None Increased matrix synthesis and cell proliferation Thompson et al.[32] 1991
  5 ng/ml E19 rat Annulus fibrosus cells None Pushed cells towards a fibrocartilaginous phenotype Hayes and Ralphs [33] 2011
  10 ng/ml Rabbit Nucleus pulposus cells Atelocollagen Robust refurbishment of matrix Lee et al.[31] 2012
VEGF Not mentioned Vegfr-1lacZ/+ and Vegfr-2lacZ/+ mouse Nucleus pulposus cells None Promotion of nucleus pulposus survival Fujita et al.[36] 2008
bFGF 300 ng/ml Mature canine Intervertebral disc tissues None Increased matrix synthesis and cell proliferation Thompson et al.[32] 1991
  0.1-20 ng/ml Bovine Coccygeal nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells None Enhanced proliferation Pratsinis and Kletsas [35] 2007
EGF 1 ng/ml Mature canine Intervertebral disc tissues None Enhanced proliferation Thompson et al.[32] 1991
CTGF Not mentioned Rhesus monkey Lumbar intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus cells None Enhanced synthesis of proteoglycan and collagen II Liu et al.[37] 2010
In vivo        
IGF1 8 ng/8 ul/disc Male Swiss Webster mouse Caudal disc compression model None An upward trend of cell density, but not statistically significant (single injection); a trend of increased disc height, but also not statistically significant (multiple injections) Walsh et al.[38] 2004
TGF-β1 1.6 ng/8 μl/disc Male Swiss Webster mouse Caudal disc compression model None A greater percentage of proliferating cells, but not statistically significant (single injection); increased population of anular fibrochondrocytes (multiple injections) Walsh et al.[38] 2004
bFGF 8 ng/8 μl/disc Male Swiss Webster mouse Caudal disc compression model None An upward trend of cell density, but not statistically significant (single injection) Walsh et al.[38] 2004
  1. The growth factors listed are stored in platelets and have exhibited promising potential in the regeneration of degenerated discs, indicating the potential of platelet-rich plasma therapy. bFGF, basic fibroblastic growth factor; CTGF, connective tissue growth factor; EGF, epidermal growth factor; GDF, growth and differentiation factor; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; TGF, transforming growth factor; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.