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Table 3 In vitro and in vivo effects of platelet-rich plasma on intervertebral disc regeneration

From: Enhancing intervertebral disc repair and regeneration through biology: platelet-rich plasma as an alternative strategy

Activator System used to obtain PRP Cell scaffold PRP carriers Results Authors Year
10% thrombin solution (vol/vol, 1,000 U/ml in 100 mmol/l CaCl2) SYMPHONY 2 Platelet Concentration System (DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA, USA) Alginate beads None Increased accumulation of glycosaminoglycan; upregulated mRNA expression of Sox9, type II collagen, and aggrecan Akeda et al.[52] 2006
Bovine thrombin (100 IU bovine thrombin/150 ml PRP) MSC blood cell separation system (Haemonetics Corp., Braintree, MA, USA) None None Induction of human nucleus pulposus proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation Chen et al.[50] 2006
Not stated Two centrifugation techniques None Gelatin hydrogel microspheres Less severe histological grading scale and increased proteoglycan production Nagae et al.[53] 2007
Bovine thrombin (100 IU bovine thrombin/150 ml PRP) MSC blood cell separation system (Haemonetics Corp.) None None Significantly increased levels of mRNAs involved in chondrogenesis and matrix accumulation; increased disc height index Chen et al.[51] 2009
Not stated Two centrifugation techniques None Gelatin hydrogel microspheres Increased mRNA expression of proteoglycan core protein and type II collagen; maintained disc height and signal intensity on MRI Sawamura et al.[54] 2009
Not stated Not stated None None Higher fluid content on MRI, reversed or modified disc height Gullung et al.[46] 2011
Autologous serum and 2% CaCl2 Two centrifugation techniques None None Restored disc height and stimulated MRI T2 value Obata et al.[47, 48] 2010, 2012
10% thrombin solution (vol/vol, 1,000 U/ml in 90 mmol/l CaCl2) Two centrifugation techniques None None Increased production of extracellular matrix and maintained MRI signal intensity Hu et al.[49] 2012
  1. The efficacy of PRP has been confirmed by many in vivo and in vitro studies, working via the proliferative effects of multiple growth factors secreted from the platelets. PRP could effectively stimulate the restoration of degenerated discs by promoting cell proliferation and increasing the production of extracellular matrix. MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; PRP, platelet-rich plasma.