Nuclear translocation of NFAT3, NFAT5 and SMAD3 as determined by Western blotting. Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes (n = 4) were treated with ionomycin (60 minutes), NaCl (60 minutes) and TGF-β (30 minutes) to activate and translocate NFAT3, NFAT5 and SMAD3, respectively. Nuclear extracts from the control and treated cells were processed for Western blotting with specific antibodies. Nucleolin, a housekeeping nuclear protein, was used as control. TGF-β, transforming growth factor β.