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Table 1 Baseline and stress-induced cytokine levels (pg/ml) in the intervention and control conditions post treatment and at follow-up

From: Immune responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

   t= 0 minutes t= 20 minutes t= 40 minutes t= 80 minutes
IL-1β      
 Post-treatment IC 92.39 (33.6) 106.7 (41.4) 111.3 (46.4) 111.6 (45.4)
  CC 114.3 (38.6) 130.9 (43.5) 116.6 (37.0) 136.7 (59.0)
 Follow-up IC 66.48 (18.8) 77.43 (23.7) 69.49 (20.1) 70.89 (19.9)
  CC 119.0 (43.0) 100.7 (32.5) 98.13 (34.1) 117.6 (41.2)
IL-2      
 Post-treatment IC 28.11 (11.1) 30.85 (11.9) 34.83 (15.6) 31.58 (13.4)
  CC 32.60 (14.0) 42.86 (19.2) 38.77 (17.3) 47.51 (27.0)
 Follow-up IC 20.28 (7.20) 25.27 (10.3) 17.37 (7.23) 19.32 (7.15)
  CC 35.89 (18.4) 27.82 (14.1) 28.12 (14.0) 32.24 (15.4)
IL-4      
 Post-treatment IC 48.22 (24.9) 48.30 (21.0) 48.98 (20.3) 52.90 (25.7)
  CC 60.18 (29.3) 72.79 (30.1) 65.76 (28.4) 65.39 (29.9)
 Follow-up IC 33.22 (13.9) 35.16 (14.9) 33.62 (12.6) 33.08 (13.6)
  CC 56.48 (23.2) 51.79 (20.0) 50.91 (21.5) 56.99 (24.8)
IL-5      
 Post-treatment IC 20.94 (15.2) 21.89 (15.3) 23.24 (16.5) 21.49 (15.6)
  CC 5.129 (2.17) 7.887 (3.72) 7.006 (2.94) 8.948 (4.51)
 Follow-up IC 16.23 (12.8) 15.89 (12.1) 15.14 (12.1) 17.60 (14.5)
  CC 7.368 (3.48) 6.048 (2.95) 5.929 (2.60) 6.969 (3.11)
IL-6      
 Post-treatment IC 36.46 (11.2) 34.94 (9.69) 38.80 (11.1) 40.36 (11.2)
  CC 30.18 (9.36) 41.18 (15.2) 33.54 (10.7) 39.57 (16.2)
 Follow-up IC 25.79 (7.51) 23.39 (7.90) 23.63 (6.41) 23.18 (6.68)
  CC 31.20 (14.1) 30.18 (12.0) 29.22 (11.3) 30.43 (11.6)
IL-7      
 Post-treatment IC 70.11 (26.0) 70.27 (24.8) 73.62 (24.7) 69.51 (27.2)
  CC 52.69 (16.5) 63.65 (20.5) 55.94 (18.5) 60.73 (21.8)
 Follow-up IC 52.54 (23.4) 54.54 (23.5) 49.13 (19.6) 53.32 (22.2)
  CC 52.80 (18.4) 53.69 (18.0) 48.64 (18.2) 52.89 (19.1)
IL-8      
 Post-treatment IC 22.14 (3.67) 16.19 (3.70) 17.02 (3.53) 14.47 (3.41)
  CC 29.55 (6.50) 34.04 (7.81) 29.45 (6.75) 28.18 (7.14)
 Follow-up IC 19.51 (4.28) 13.97 (4.67) 12.53 (4.00) 10.37 (3.38)a
  CC 33.63 (6.68) 33.46 (8.33) 29.31 (7.83) 23.64 (5.72)
IL-10      
 Post-treatment IC 172.0 (75.2) 183.7 (81.0) 175.5 (80.0) 164.7 (75.8)
  CC 49.33 (25.9) 57.07 (31.8) 73.55 (48.1) 71.02 (45.9)
 Follow-up IC 72.67 (35.6) 115.6 (54.6) 85.90 (41.9) 78.49 (37.4)
  CC 46.83 (26.8) 43.63 (24.2) 39.90 (20.9) 50.27 (28.0)
IFNγ      
 Post-treatment IC 1.063 (0.39) 1.070 (0.43) 0.821 (0.33) 0.706 (0.31)
  CC 1.545 (0.45) 8.328 (4.98) 6.623 (4.91) 7.591 (5.70)
 Follow-up IC 0.857 (0.39) 0.772 (0.32) 0.925 (0.36) 1.062 (0.38)
  CC 4.389 (2.87) 8.535 (6.37) 6.597 (4.98) 7.377 (5,94)
TNFα      
 Post-treatment IC 31.40 (8.54) 34.98 (8.95) 34.82 (8.35) 35.60 (10.7)
  CC 34.56 (12.4) 39.35 (12.7) 36.00 (11.1) 35.45 (11.2)
 Follow-up IC 23.90 (5.75) 26.44 (6.94) 24.74 (5.89) 25.19 (6.44)
  CC 26.26 (8.74) 23.84 (7.17) 25.04 (9.44) 25.93 (8.92)
  1. Data presented as mean (± standard error of the mean). CC, control condition; IC, intervention condition; IFNγ, interferon gamma; IL, interleukin; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor alpha. aSignificant between-group effect (P ≤0.05). Means at the four time points. Statistical analyses performed on ln-transformed data.