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Table 1 Histological changes of bone marrow edema-like lesions in osteoarthritic subchondral bone

From: Subchondral bone in osteoarthritis: insight into risk factors and microstructural changes

Species Joint Reference Histology
Human Knee Bergman et al.[105] 1.Thickening trabeculae
    2. Bone marrow fibrosis
  Knee Zanetti et al.[106] 1. Normal tissue: fatty marrow (53%), intact trabeculae (16%), blood vessels (2%)
    2. Abnormal tissue: bone marrow necrosis (11%), necrotic or remodeled trabeculae (8%), bone marrow fibrosis (4%), bone marrow edema (4%), bone marrow bleeding (2%)
  Knee Hunter et al.[104] 1. Sclerotic trabeculae
    2. Abnormal marrow infiltration: granulation, edema, diffuse necrosis, fibrosis, hyperplasia of blood vessel walls
  Knee Kazakia et al.[107] 1. Sclerotic trabeculae
    2. Abnormal marrow infiltration: fibrous collagen, woven bone
Canine Knee Nolte-Ernsting et al.[108] 1. Osteosclerosis
    2. Intra-osseous cysts
    3. Abnormal marrow infiltration: fibrosis, new bone formation
  Knee Baird et al.[109] 1. Remodeled trabeculae
    2. Myxomatous fibro-reactive marrow, increased hemato/myelopoietic elements and vascular congestion
  Knee Martig et al.[110] Hematopoiesis and myxomatous transformation of the bone marrow, fibrosis