Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the sero-epidemiological association between Epstein-Barr virus and systemic lupus erythematosus

Study ID   Cases Controls  
  Age matching Location Total Source/type Sexa Ageb Total Source/type Sexa Ageb Anti-EBV (IgG/IgA) Test used
Berkun and colleagues [19] ‘Matched by age’ Colombia 120 1982 ACR criteria for SLE 119:1 38.6 (11.9) 140 Healthy controls 130:10 39.1 (10.1) VCA, EBNA1, EA (IgG) IFA
Chen and colleagues [20] ‘Age matched’ Taiwan 36 1997 ACR criteria for SLE 32:4 30.7 (6.5) 36 Not specified 32:4 30.6 (6.2) VCA (IgG/IgA) IFA
Chen and colleagues [21] None Taiwan 94 1997 ACR criteria for SLE 82:12 42.1 (9.8) 370 ‘Healthy volunteers’ 220:150 35.7 (13.9) VCA (IgG), EBNA1 (IgG/IgA) ELISA
Esen and colleagues [37] None Turkey 198 1997 ACR criteria for SLE 180:18 38 (13)/17 to 74 65 Not specified 42:23 35 (7)/21 to 50 VCA, EBNA1, EA (IgG) ELISA
Evans [22] None USA 100 ‘Typical multi-system disease’ and positive LE cell test Not specified 14 aged <20, 86 aged >20 34 Tuberculosis patients Not specified Not specified Anti-EBV IgG (unspecified) IFA
Gergely and colleagues [23] ‘Identical age and sex distribution’ Hungary 70 ‘Typical multi-system disease’ Not specified Not specified 70 Not specified Not specified Not specified Anti-EBV IgG (unspecified) IFA
Huggins and colleagues [24] None UK 36 1997 ACR criteria for SLE 36:0 45 (14) 25 Blood donors 25:0 47 (18) VCA, EBNA1, EA (IgG) IFA
James and colleagues [13] ‘Similar by age’ USA 117 1982 ACR criteria for SLE Not specified 15.8 (2.15) 153 Siblings/community controls Not specified 15.4 (2.51) VCA (IgG) ELISA
James and colleagues. [25] Matched by age ±10 years USA 196 1997 ACR criteria for SLE 184:12 44.7 (12.4)/20 to 76 392 Selected from predigrees from lupus genetic study 368:24 45.9 (12.9)/20 to 84 VCA (IgG) ELISA
Kitagawa and colleagues [26] None Japan 65 1982 ACR criteria for SLE Not specified Not specified 66 ‘Healthy donors’ Not specified Not specified EBNA1 (IgG) IFA
Lau and colleagues [27] None Hong Kong 34 1982 ACR criteria for SLE Not specified Not specified 22 Not specified Not specified Not specified VCA, EA (IgG/IgA) IFA
Lu and colleagues [28] Age matched within 2 years Taiwan 93 1997 ACR criteria for SLE 95% female 35.2 (14.2) 370 ‘Healthy volunteers’ 95% female Not specified EBNA1 (IgA), anti-EBV-DNase (IgG) ELISA
Marchini and colleagues [29] None Italy 40 ‘Patients attending Clinical Immunology Unit’ Not specified Not specified 20 Not specified Not specified Not specified EBNA1 (IgG) ELISA
Newkirk and colleagues [39] None Canada 70 1982 ACR criteria for SLE 63:7 44.3 (2.5) 31 Not specified 19:12 46.5 (2.8) EA (IgG) ELISA
Ngou and colleagues [30] None France 33 1982 ACR criteria for SLE Not specified Not specified 50 Blood donors Not specified Not specified EBNA1 (IgG) IFA
Parks and colleagues [18] Age matched by 5-year subgroups USA 230 1997 ACR criteria for SLE 90% female Not specified 276 Community controls 90% female Not specified VCA (IgG/IgA) ELISA
Stevens and colleagues [32] None USA 34 ‘Classical clinical picture’ and positive LE cell test All female Not specified 33 ‘Normal’ hospital controls All female Not specified Nuclear reacting antibody ELISA
Stratta and colleagues [31] None Italy 60 1982 ACR criteria for SLE 51:9 41/21 to 66 100 Blood donors 28:72 39 (15) VCA, EA (IgG) IFA
Sun and colleagues [15] ‘Mean age matched between cases and controls’ China 108 1997 ACR criteria for SLE 93:15 34.1 (12.1) 122 ‘Healthy controls’ 111:11 33.5 (7.6) VCA or EBNA1 (IgG) ELISA
Tazi and colleagues [33] ‘Age matched’ Morocco 44 1997 ACR criteria for SLE 39:5 33/19 to 55 44 Blood donors 39:5 33/19 to 55 VCA, EBNA1 (IgG) ELISA
Tsai and colleagues [34] ‘Age matched’ Taiwan 16 1982 ACR criteria for SLE Not specified 16.9 (3.3) 20 Not specified Not specified 12.3 (2.6) VCA (IgG) IFA
Us and colleagues [38] None Turkey 50 1997 ACR criteria for SLE Not specified Not specified 50 Blood donors Not specified 35 (14) VCA, EBNA1, EA (IgG) ELISA
Westgeest and colleagues [40] None Netherlands 14 1982 ACR criteria for SLE Not specified Not specified 84 Blood donors Not specified Not specified EBNA1 IgG IFA
Yokochi and colleagues [35] None Japan 16 1982 ACR criteria for SLE All female 53 (12)/27 to 72 30 ‘Healthy donors’ 26:4 46 (9)/30 to 69 VCA, EBNA, EA (IgG) IFA
Zhang and colleagues. [36] None China 36 ‘SLE’ Not specified Not specified 45 ‘Normal controls’ Not specified Not specified VCA (IgG/IgA) IFA
  1. Ethnicity: no data were available on ethnicity of cases and controls except from the analysis by Parks and colleagues, in which 60% of cases and 30% of controls were African American [18]. ACR, American College of Rheumatology; EA, early antigen; EBNA, Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen; EBV, Epstein–Barr virus; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IFA, immunofluorescence assay; LE, lupus erythematosis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; VCA, viral capsid antigen. aFemale:male number and/or ratio. bMean (standard deviation) and/or range.