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Table 2 Biomarkers in patients with and without ultrasound-defined synovitis

From: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis in clinical remission and ultrasound-defined active synovitis exhibit higher disease activity and increased serum levels of angiogenic biomarkers

  All (n = 55) Ultrasound-defined active synovitis P valuea
Yes (n = 25) No (n = 30)
Activin A 6,556 (3,012 to 10,887) 9,186 (4,846 to 12,297) 4,175 (2,450 to 10,255) 0.086
ANG 7,670 (6,206 to 10,496) 8,009 (6,729 to 10,816) 6867 (5,861 to 9,421) 0.119
ANG-1 32,622 (28,287 to 36,705) 34,343 (28,615 to 39,515) 31,066 (27,977 to 35,834) 0.210
ANG-2 726.4 (595.8-1014.8) 881 (670 to 1,072) 702 (536 to 869) 0.038
Angiostatin 37,409 (30,333 to 48,183) 34,326 (28,123 to 46,416) 39,648 (34,243 to 49,152) 0.111
ANGPTL4 15,120 (6,450 to 6,464) 1,374 (606 to 6,030) 2,294 (7,450 to 7,713) 0.630
bFGF 314 (268 to 492) 384 (288 to 675) 295 (265 to 318) 0.007
CXCL16 849 (739 to 1,311) 907 (774 to 1,214) 848 (682 to 1,454) 0.967
ENA-78 1,186 (813 to 1,746) 1,146 (871 to 1,664) 1,241 (780 to 1,886) 0.927
GRO 9,570 (7,592 to 12,000) 10,724 (8,644 to 12,000) 9,284 (7,050 to 12,000) 0.350
IL-17 10 (0 to 27) 13 (5 to 32) 7 (0 to 25) 0.141
IL-17 F 288 (57 to 4,888) 344 (59 to 3,351) 204 (58 to 4,980) 0.872
IL-18 589 (395 to 1,066) 741 (463 to 1,224) 514 (341 to 890) 0.066
IL-20 259 (92 to 836) 422 (145 to 924) 234 (68 to 727) 0.098
IL-23 249 (176 to 431) 257 (219 to 699) 240 (166 to 323) 0.098
IL-33 14 (4 to 73) 17 (4 to 69) 11 (4 to 83) 0.866
IL-6 149 (93 to 290) 177 (106 to 317) 136 (91 to 226) 0.136
IL-8 30 (21 to 62) 42 (21 to 64) 26 (22 to 46) 0.366
MMP-2 2,738 (1,941 to 4,050) 3,762 (2,294 to 5,574) 2,404 (1,915 to 3,263) 0.027
MMP-9 28,180 (21,104 to 34,808) 27,370 (23,526 to 34,009) 29,008 (17,682 to 35,779) 0.940
PlGF 288 (148 to 979) 453 (192 to 1,357) 237 (117 to 721) 0.043
SDF-1 280 (117 to 1,554) 750 (164 to 3,305) 165 (84 to 1,006) 0.035
TGF-β1 1,453 (809 to 2,252) 1,741 (1,065 to 2,424) 1,196 (649 to 2,053) 0.089
Tie-1 5,099 (1,647 to 19,737) 6,841 (1,896 to 31,161) 4,039 (1,556 to 12,210) 0.112
Tie-2 14,735 (6,215 to 32,401) 20,559 (7,426 to 47,483) 11,436 (4,101 to 26,744) 0.317
TNFα 6,755 (4,460 to 12,112) 6,755 (4,539 to 12,869) 6,362 (4,379 to 10,507) 0.465
VEGF 1,193 (815 to 1,990) 1,193 (871 to 2,178) 1,193 (810 to 1,911) 0.609
VEGFR-1 485 (308 to 881) 634 (366 to 1,001) 471 (278 to 723) 0.204
VEGFR-2 1,014 (713 to 1,918) 1,096 (869 to 1,807) 1,005 (679 to 1,937) 0.149
VEGF-D 32,097 (17,815 to 227,618) 63,480 (26,776 to 600,000) 27,545 (12,517 to 76,119) 0.018
  1. Data expressed as median (interquartile range). ANG, angiopoietin; ANGPTL4, angiopoietin-like protein-4; bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; CXCL, CC-chemokine ligand; ENA-78, epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide-78; GRO, growth-related oncogene; IL, interleukin; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; PlGF, placental growth factor; SDF-1, stromal-cell derived factor-1; TGF-β1, transforming growth factor beta-1; Tie, tyrosine-kinase with immunoglobulin-like and endothelial growth factor-like domains; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor alpha; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGFR, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. aMann–Whitney test.