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Table 3 Results of the secondary endpoint of the study

From: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection versus oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a multi-center, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial

  Pain VAS % change of VAS score
   Mean SD P(post vs. pre) Mean (%) SD Difference (%) [IA-HA - NSAID] (95% CI)
IA-HA (n = 97) Pre-treatment 60.1 22.4 <0.001 -41.2 52.7 -5.2 (-23.8 to 13.4)
Post-treatment 31.8 24.1
NSAID (n = 85) Pre-treatment 55.5 21.8 <0.001 -36.0 73.8
  Post-treatment 31.9 23.9     
  1. The effect of the treatment of either IA-HA or NSAID for the patients with knee OA evaluated by pain VAS score (left) and percentage (%) change of VAS score (right). A P value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. VAS, visual analog scale; IA, intra-articular; HA, hyaluronic acid; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.