The expression of CCL2 and CXCL10 in high versus low STAT1 patient subsets with individual and combined therapy. (A) CCL2 levels in HD (healthy donor), untreated (UTX), and other patient visits under treatment with different combinations of PDN, MMF, and HCQ were plotted (black bars). Only significant differences comparing each treatment group to either HD or UTX are indicated as black lines with P value shown. Data segregating into high STAT1 (blue line) and low STAT1 (red line) subsets are also shown and significant differences for these subsets are indicated by green asterisks. (B) CXCL10 data were analyzed similarly. CCL2, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2; CXCL10, C-X-C motif chemokine 10; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; HD, healthy donor; IFN, interferon; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; PDN, prednisone; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SLEDAI, SLE disease activity index; STAT1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1.