Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of energy storage and energy expenditure hormones

From: Interaction of the endocrine system with inflammation: a function of energy and volume regulation

  Fat tissue Muscle Liver Bone Kidneys
Energy storage hormones      
Insulin Uptakea Uptakea Uptakea   
Insulin-like growth factor-1b Growth Growth Uptakea Growth  
Androgensb   Growth   Growth  
Estrogensb Gynoid fat distribution Glucose uptakea   Growth  
Vitamin D   Growth   Growth Calcium/phosphorus retention
Osteocalcinb,c   Glucose uptakea Glucose uptakea Growth  
Vagus nerve Uptakea   Uptakea   
Energy expenditure hormones      
Cortisold Releasea Releasea Releasea Releasea Water/sodium retention
Sympathetic nervous system (noradrenaline/adrenaline)d Releasea Releasea Releasea Releasea Water/sodium retention
Growth hormoned Releasea Releasea Releasea Growth via IGF-1 Water/sodium retention
Thyroid hormones (T3)d Releasea Releasea Releasea Releasea Water/sodium retention
RAASd    Releasea Releasea Water/sodium retention
  1. aUptake/release of energy-rich fuels into/from respective tissue; bincrease of insulin sensitivity; csupport of androgens; ddecrease of insulin sensitivity (induction of insulin resistance). IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; RAAS, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; T3, tri-iodothyronine.