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Table 6 Explorative baseline analysis of potential risk factors between patients with or without atherosclerotic plaques a

From: Atherosclerotic plaques occur in absence of intima-media thickening in both systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a duplexsonography study of carotid and femoral arteries and follow-up for cardiovascular events

Characteristic SSc (n = 90) SLE (n = 100)
With plaque Without plaque P value With plaque Without plaque P value
(n = 59) (n = 31)   (n = 49) (n = 51)  
Age (years) 63.9 ± 12.0 45.9 ± 10.9 <0.001 57.7 ± 10.6 39.0 ± 13.0 <0.001
Male sex 10 (16.9%) 2 (6.5%) 0.206 11 (22.4%) 2 (3.9%) 0.007
Postmenopausal status, women only 44/49 (89.8%) 12/29 (41.4%) <0.001 31/38 (81.6%) 16/49 (32.7%) <0.001
Hypertension 38 (64.4%) 7 (22.6%) <0.001 39 (79.6%) 17 (33.3%) <0.001
Nicotine pack-years 13.9 ± 22.5 4.1 ± 7.8 0.003 14.7 ± 20.6 6.2 ± 8.9 0.009
Dyslipidemia 30 (50.8%) 7 (22.6%) 0.010 24 (49%) 15 (29.4%) 0.045
Age at diagnosis (years) 56.0 ± 14.3 38.7 ± 10.9 <0.001 50.8 ± 14.4 33.4 ± 11.4 <0.001
Pulmonary hypertension 15 (25.4%) 2 (6.5%) 0.045 3 (6.1%) 0 (0%) 0.114
Coronary heart disease 8 (13.6%) 2 (6.5%) 0.484 9 (18.4%) 0 (0%) 0.001
Glomerular filtration rate 85.1 ± 19.7 101.3 ± 13.4 <0.001 89.0 ± 23.1 100.6 ± 24.3 0.019
Autoantibodies       
 SCL70 12 (20.3%) 14 (45.2%) 0.014
 Centromere 28 (47.5%) 8 (25.8%) 0.046
 ssDNA 10 (20.4%) 19 (37.3%) 0.063
 dsDNA 11 (22.4%) 27 (52.9%) 0.002
 Nucleosomes 7 (14.3%) 15 (29.4%) 0.068
 RNP 4 (8.2%) 11 (21.6%) 0.092
Immunosuppressive treatment:       
 Duration of CS use (months) 37.2 ± 61.6 13.1 ± 29.8 0.016 25.1 ± 41.8 25.4 ± 57.0 0.978
 Cumulative CS dose (g) 8.0 ± 14.8 2.7 ± 7.5 0.030 7.5 ± 16.9 4.8 ± 8.3 0.335
 Duration of AZA use (months) 10.0 ± 29.6 7.9 ± 27.7 0.747 21.8 ± 50.5 7.7 ± 25.2 0.086
 Cumulative AZA dose (g) 29.4 ± 83.0 23.7 ± 83.0 0.763 83.9 ± 244.6 25.1 ± 79.6 0.115
  1. Values presented as number of patients (percentage) or mean ± standard deviation.
  2. AZA, azathioprine; CS, corticosteroid; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SSc, systemic sclerosis; ssDNA, single-stranded DNA.
  3. aOnly variables suggested for logistic regression analysis are reported; complete report available in Additional file 2.
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