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Table 1 Data for the 141 JIA patients longitudinally evaluated in comparison to their respective control groups

From: Bone mass and quality in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: longitudinal evaluation of bone-mass determinants by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and quantitative ultrasonography

  JIA group Control group
  Baseline Second evaluation Baseline Second evaluation
Number of subjects 245 166 80 82
Female/male ratio 172:73 132:34 58:22 59:23
Age, years (range) 15.6 (9.6 - 28.3) 17.1 (11.0 - 28.9) 14.8 (8.9 - 26.7) 16.9 (10.9 - 28.4)
Height, z score −0.6 ± 1.1 −0.5 ± 0.9 −0.1 ± 0.9 −0.1 ± 0.7
BMI, z score −0.3 ± 0.8 −0.1 ± 0.6 0.1 ± 0.7 0.2 ± 0.5
Disease duration 5.6 ± 3.2 years 7.2 ± 4.3 years - -
C-HAQ DI 0.74 ± 0.63 0.59 ± 0.48 - -
DXA examination     
 BMC, g 45.17 ± 19.13a 49.04 ± 21.56°°°j 51.23 ± 17.90 56.98 ± 16.82h
 BMAD spine, g/cm2 −0.64 ± 0.80b −0.49 ± 1.10°°° 0.24 ± 0.21 0.13 ± 0.32
HR-pQCT     
 TrbBMD (mg/cm3) 179.5 ± 34.6c 181.9 ± 48.8f 217.7 ± 26.3 244.9 ± 28.5i
 CBA (mm2) 136.3 ± 122. c 149.0 ± 87.6f 209.2 ± 101.3 214.3 ± 74.3
 CrtBMD (mg/cm3) 1,050.2 ± 126.5 1,079.8 ± 82.1j 1,039.6 ± 79.3 1,078.3 ± 73.1g
 Muscle CSA (mm2) 2,112.7 ± 732.4b 2,083.7 ± 697.8f 2,398.5 ± 773.3 2,579.3 ± 794.5h
 Fat CSA (mm2) 1,143.1 ± 649.1c 1,110.1 ± 483.7e 918.3 ± 382.1 945.8 ± 394.2
 SSIp (mm3) 246.3 ± 140.2a 306.8 ± 250.7d,j 284.0 ± 127.9 276.7 ± 110.4
Ultrasonography     
 -AD-SoS 1,994.5 ± 119.7b 2,003.0 ± 101.1e 2,122.3 ± 113.1 2,152.8 ± 118.9
 -QUS z score −0.6 ± 1.8a −0.5 ± 1.5e 0.1 ± 1.6 0.2 ± 1.8
  1. JIA versus controls (transversal study): aP < 0.05; bP < 0.005; cP < 0.0005; JIA versus. controls (longitudinal study): dP < 0.05; eP < 0.005; fP < 0.0005.
  2. Controls versus controls (longitudinal study): gP < 0.05; h^^ P < 0.005; iP < 0.0005; JIA versus JIA (longitudinal study): jP < 0.05; §j§P < 0.005; §§§ < 0.0005.
  3. AD-SoS, amplitude-dependent speed of sound; BMAD, bone mineral apparent density; BMC, bone mineral content; BMI, body mass index; CBA, cortical bone area; C-HAQ DI, Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, range, 0–3 (0 = best, 3 = worst); CrtBMD, cortical bone-mineral density; DXA, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; FatCSA, fat cross-sectional area; HR-pQCT, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography; JIA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis; MuscleCSA, muscle cross-sectional area; SSIp, density-weighted polar section modulus; QUS, quantitative ultrasonography; TrbBMD, trabecular bone-mineral density.