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Table 4 Studies addressing prevalence and clinical association of aPT antibodies

From: Antiphospholipid syndrome in 2014: more clinical manifestations, novel pathogenic players and emerging biomarkers

Reference Study population N Prevalence of anti-PT Clinical association
Fleck et al. [28] LA positive subjects 42 74% NI
Pengo et al. [29] APS patients 22 50% No association with thrombosis
Horback et al. [30] SLE patients 175 38% Association with thrombosis
(IgG and IgM)
Puurunen et al. [31] SLE patients 139 34% Association with DVT
Swadzba et al. [32] SLE patients with thrombotic event 127 28% No association with thrombosis (IgG and IgM)
31
Galli et al. [33] aPL-positive subjects 59 58% No association with thrombosis
IgG 35.6%
IgM 37.3%
Bertolaccini et al. [34] SLE patients 207 28% No association with APS clinical manifestations
Forastiero et al. [35] APS patients 97 25% Association with thrombosis
aPL-negative patients with thrombotic events 83
Munoz-Rodriguez et al. [36] APS patients 70 57% Association with arterial thrombosis (IgG only)
SLE patients 107 40%
Atsumi et al. [37] Patients with autoimmune diseases 265 IgG: PAPS 15%; SLE APS 42%; SLE no APS 20% No association with APS
IgM: PAPS 5%; SLE APS 4%; SLE No APS 6%
Galli et al. [38] LA-positive patients 72 85% No association with APS
Nojima et al. [39] SLE patients 124 IgG 52.4% Association with venous thromboembolism (only aPT IgG + LA)
IgM 21%
Nojima et al. [40] SLE patients 168 56% Association with arterial thrombosis
Simmelink et al. [41] LA-positive patients 46 30% Association with thrombosis
LA-positive patients with SLE 29 LA-positive subjects: 70%
LA-negative patients 38  
LA-negative patients with SLE 36
Salcido-Ochoa et al. [42] APS patients 38 IgG 26%, IgM 11% Association with thrombosis
SLE patients 466 IgG 20%, IgM 33%
Von Landenberg et al. [43] APS patients 170 IgG 61.7% Association with pregnancy loss (IgG only)
(57% PAPS; 43% SAPS)   IgM 57.6%
IgA 7%
Musial et al. [44] APS patients 22 IgG 45.4%, IgM 50% No association with thrombosis
SLE patients 160 IgG 18.1%, IgM 18.7%
SLE-like patients 22 IgG 31.8%, IgM 27.3%
Ishikura et al. [45] SLE patients 22 18.2% Association with venous thrombosis
Patients with   
DVT/PTE 48 IgG 29%, IgM 8.3%
Stroke 30 IgG 16.7%, IgM 6.7%
Koskenmies et al. [46] SLE patients 292 20% Association with arterial thrombosis
Bertolaccini et al. [47] SLE patients 212 31% Association with venous/arterial thrombosis (IgG only)
IgG-only 24.5%
IgM-only 5%
Bizzarro et al. [48] aCL-positive APS patients 25 60% Association with thrombosis (IgG only)
SLE-APS patients 23 45%
SLE-no APS patients 66
Forastiero et al. [49] aPL-positive subjects (LA/aCL) 194 46% Association with thrombosis (IgG only)
IgG 36%
IgM 23%
Gould et al. [50] SLE patients 100 20% No association with thrombosis
Tsutumi et al. [51] SLE patients 139 25% Association with thrombosis
Nojima et al. [52] SLE patients 175 54.3% No association with thrombosis
Bizzaro et al. [53] SLE patients 101 IgG 13.9% Association with thrombosis (IgG only)
IgM 9%
IgG + IgM 3%
Sailer et al. [54] LA-positive subjects 79   No association with thrombosis
With thrombosis 50 72% (assay I), 50% (assay II)
Without thrombosis 29 66% (assay I), 41% (assay II)
Bardin et al. [55] APS patients 62 42% NI
Jakowski et al. [56] APS patients 58 22% No association with pregnancy loss
Women with recurrent pregnancy loss 66 12%
Szodoray et al. [57] SLE patients 85 IgG 18%, IgM 0 NI
Pengo et al. [58] LA-positive subjects 231 IgG 26% No association with APS clinical events
IgM 27%
Marozio et al. [59] Obstetric APS patients 187 29.4% Association with severe pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, intra-uterine fetal death
IgG 25.8%
IgM 1.8%
IgG + IgM: 1.8%
Hoxha et al. [60] PAPS patients 158 IgG 23.5%, IgM 4.9% Association with thrombosis and obstetric manifestations (IgG only)
Thrombotic APS 56 IgG 10.7%, IgM 1.8%
Obstetric APS 102  
Sater et al. [61] Women with recurrent miscarriages 277 IgM 12% No association with pregnancy loss
  1. aCL, anti-cardiolipin antibody; aPL, anti-phospholipid antibody; APS, anti-phospholipid syndrome; aPT, anti-prothrombin antibody; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; HELLP, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count; Ig, immunoglobulin; LA, lupus anticoagulant; NI, not investigated; PAPS, primary anti-phospholipid syndrome; PTE, pulmonary thromboembolism; SAPS, secondary anti-phospholipid syndrome; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.