Lymphoid (C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13)) and myeloid (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM1)) serum biomarkers define rheumatoid arthritis patient subgroups with differential clinical response to anti-TNFα (adalimumab) compared with anti-IL-6R (tocilizumab) in the ADACTA trial. Relative treatment effectiveness (week-24 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)50 response) of adalimumab compared with tocilizumab was assessed by logistic regression for (A) each individual biomarker and (B) biomarker combination-defined subgroups using their respective medians as cutoffs (see Methods). Relative treatment effectiveness for adalimumab versus tocilizumab is represented by odds ratio and 95% CI for ACR50 response. Week-24 ACR20 (gray), ACR50 (green), and ACR70 (purple) response rates (%) per biomarker-defined subgroup are represented by radial plot for adalimumab (C) and tocilizumab (D) treatment arms. The direction of each radial line corresponds to a biomarker subgroup as follows: sICAM1 low (bottom) and high (top), CXCL13 low (left) and high (right). Low and high designations refer to biomarker values above and below their respective medians. Distance from radial plot center indicates response rate. Summary of week-24 ACR50 response rates for sICAM1-high/CXCL13-low, sICAM1-high/CXCL13-high, sICAM1-low/CXCL13-low and sICAM1-low/CXCL13-high ADACTA RA patients (E). The treatment-effect deltas between sICAM1-high/CXCL13-low and sICAM1-low/CXCL13-high patient groups are indicated for both adalimumab and tocilizumab.