The BMD values were measured from the region of interest in the knee. BMD values significantly decreased in OA, OP, and OA + OP groups as compared with sham without ESWT. ESWT significantly increased the BMD values in OA, OP, and OA + OP groups relative to sham (indicated as
P < 0.05 and **P < 0.001). The BMD values in animals treated with ESWT showed significant improvement as compared with animals without ESWT (indicated as #P < 0.05). The OA group showed significantly higher BMD values than the OA + OP group, with and without ESWT, respectively (indicated as ※P < 0.05 and ※※P < 0.001); n = 8.