Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic, clinical, laboratory, medication, and imaging data from 20 systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 16 controls

From: Inflammatory expression profiles in monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and relationship with atherosclerosis

  SLE mean ± SD Control mean ± SD p value
Age, years 46.9 ± 8.9 52.8 ± 11.0 0.09
Race, % who were Caucasian 75 80 0.98
Body mass index, kg/m2 27.7 ± 7.7 28.3 ± 4.9 0.79
Waist-hip ratio 0.85 ± 0.07 0.86 ± 0.08 0.69
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 117.4 ± 13.2 116.8 ± 14.4 0.88
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 72.3 ± 9.0 71.8 ± 11.5 0.79
Current smoking, % 20 26.7 0.65
Diabetes, % 5 6 0.93
Family history of cardiovascular disease, % 10 7 0.74
Menopausal, % 45 53 0.64
Cardiovascular events 0 0 n/a
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 188.9 ± 51.9 218.9 ± 41.4 0.12
LDLc, mg/dL 101.5 ± 41.5 139.0 ± 8.7 0.04
Triglycerides, mg/dL 125.6 ± 99.9 101.0 ± 48.9 0.44
Glucose, mg/dL 98.4 ± 10.7 103.7 ± 13.9 0.27
Glomerular filtration rate, mL/min 80.7 ± 17.8 77.9 ± 18.8 0.65
C-reactive protein, mg/L 3.5 ± 3.6 3.8 ± 6.3 0.91
C3, mg/dL 101.5 ± 21.5   
C4, mg/dL 20.3 ± 8.4   
dsDNA (crithidia) level 66.3   
Presence of carotid plaque 45 53 0.65
Higher CAC score (>10), % 35 33 0.92
Higher AC score (>100), % 50 47 0.85
Intima-media thickness (mean ± SD) 0.65 ± 0.14 0.71 ± 0.21 0.27
Atherosclerosis phenotype, % 50 62.5 0.47
SLEDAI-2 K 4.2 ± 4.3   
SLICC/ACR-DI 2.2 ± 1.8   
Disease duration, years 16.3 ± 8.2   
Total ACR SLE classification criteria (median) 5   
Corticosteroids 30 0 0.01
Hydroxychloroquine 65 0 0.00001
Immunosuppressants 40 0 0.002
Statins 35 0 0.03
Antihypertensives 45 25 0.09
  1. Atherosclerosis phenotype was defined as the presence of at least three of the following four abnormalities on carotid ultrasound or electron beam computed tomography: presence of carotid plaque, intima-media thickness greater than mean of the study group, high coronary calcium score of more than 10, or high aorta calcium score of more than 100. Cardiovascular events were defined as myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery, coronary intervention, or cerebrovascular events (transient ischemic attack or stroke) related to atherosclerotic disease. Validated measures of lupus disease activity and disease damage (SLEDAI-2 K and SLICC/ACR-DI) were completed by trained physicians. The disease duration was calculated by using the date the subject fulfilled the 4th American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for lupus as onset date and study visit date as the end date. Renal disease was defined as being present if the subject had fulfilled ACR classification criteria for lupus renal involvement (greater than 0.5 g/day, 3+ proteinuria, and/or the presence of cellular casts) or had a renal biopsy with evidence of World Health Organization Class IIb, III, IV, or V lupus nephritis. The column on the right denotes percentages of patients meeting the various ACR clinical classification for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody level average includes only patients in whom these antibodies were present. Current smoking was defined as individuals reporting use of one or more cigarettes daily, and no individuals reported prior smoking history. p values were calculated by using a Student’s 7t-test. AC, aortic calcium; CAC, coronary artery calcium; LDLc, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SD, standard deviation; SLEDAI-2 K, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2000; SLICC/ACR-DI, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index.