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Table 1 Salient features of US Hispanic SLE patients from LUMINA and Latin America Mestizo patients from GLADEL (at diagnosis or at last visit)

From: Disease features and outcomes among US lupus patients of Hispanic origin and their Mestizo counterpart in Latina America

Characteristic LUMINA (n = 114) GLADEL (n = 619) P value
Age, mean (SD) 31.3 (12.2) 29.4 (12.6) 0.138
Gender (female), n (%) 106 (93.0) 546 (88.2) 0.135
Disease duration (years), mean (SD) 6.1 (4.3) 4.5 (4.6) <0.001
Low SESa, n (%) 42/107 (39.3) 391 (63.2) <0.001
Health insurance, n (%) 56/112 (50.0) 466/615 (72.5) <0.001
Acute onset, n (%) 34 (29.8) 151 (24.4) 0.220
ACR criteria numberb, mean (SD) 6.8 (1.6) 6.3 (1.5) 0.069
Disease activity (moderate-high)c, n (%) 78/92 (84.8) 438/493 (88.8) 0.268
Renal disorder, n (%) 60 (52.6) 370 (59.8) 0.155
SDI score at last visitb, mean (SD) 2.3 (2.6) 1.7 (1.7) <0.001
Renal damage (per SDI, at last visit)d, n (%) 37 (32.5) 184 (29.7) 0.559
Deceasedd, n (%) 21 (18.4) 35 (5.7) <0.001
  1. SES, socioeconomic status; ACR, American College of Rheumatology; SDI, SLICC (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics) Damage Index. aSES defined as being below the Federally-defined poverty line for LUMINA and as per the Graffar method for GLADEL. bAfter adjusting for disease duration in a Poisson regression model. cDefined as a SLAM (Systemic Lupus Activity Measure) >7 for LUMINA and a SLEDAI (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index) >4 for GLADEL. dSignificant after adjusting for disease duration using a Poisson regression model (for the SDI) and logistic regression for mortality