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Table 2 Classical signs of insulin resistance until 1995 [5, 28, 121, 122].

From: Insulin resistance, selfish brain, and selfish immune system: an evolutionarily positively selected program used in chronic inflammatory diseases

Structure, organ Observed change
Insulin receptor Inhibited
Insulin receptor signaling cascade Inhibited
   Glycogen synthase Inhibited
   Hexokinase II Inhibited
   Pyruvate dehydrogenase Inhibited
   Hepatic glucose production (gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis) Stimulated
   Insulin clearance Stimulated
Adipose tissue  
   Free fatty acid mobilization Stimulated
Signs in circulating blood  
   Hyperglycemia Yes
   Hyperlipidemiaa Yes
   Glucagon Increased
  1. aTriglyceride-free fatty acid-very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride cycle.