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Table 3 Methods to measure insulin resistance.

From: Insulin resistance, selfish brain, and selfish immune system: an evolutionarily positively selected program used in chronic inflammatory diseases

Technique Notes Reference
Reference methods   
   Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp Gold standard, highly invasive [114]
   Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test Silver standard, invasive [132]
Oral glucose tolerance test   
   Insulin sensitivity glycemic index = 1 + 2/INSp × GLYp) Most commonly used, little invasive [133]
   Whole body insulin sensitivity Little invasive [133]
   Muscle IS = (Δglucose/Δtime)/mean plasma insulina Little invasive [134]
   Hepatic IS = glucose0-30 minutes[AUC] × insulin0-30 minutes[AUC]b Little invasive [134]
Fasting simple indices   
   Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) Non-invasive [133]
   Newer version of the HOMA-IR (HOMA2-S) Non-invasive [133]
   FGIR = fasting glucose (mg/dl)/fasting insulin (mU/l) Non-invasive [133]
   Quicki = 1/(log fasting insulin (mU/l) + log fasting glucose (mg/dl)) Non-invasive [133]
Biochemical markers of insulin resistance   
   Sex hormone binding globulin Non-invasive [133]
   Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 Non-invasive [133]
   Other markers: YKL-40, alpha-hydroxybutyrate, soluble CD36, leptin, resistin, interleukin-18, retinol binding protein-4, and chemerin Non-invasive [135]
  1. AUC, area under the curve; GLYp, area under glucose curve; INSp, area under the insulin curve; IS, insulin sensitivity. aThe rate of decay of plasma glucose concentration from its peak value to its nadir (Δglucose/Δtime) during the oral glucose tolerance test. bThe product of the total AUC for glucose and insulin during the first 30 minutes of the oral glucose tolerance test.