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Table 1 Characteristics of chronically activated T lymphocytes in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

From: Studies of T-cell activation in chronic inflammation

1 T lymphocytes are found in follicular lymphoid aggregates
2 The cell-surface phenotype is suggestive of chronic immune activation, e.g. expression of CD45RO, CD69, and subsets of chemokine receptors
3 T cells are terminally differentiated, with significant telomere loss
4 Synovial T cells are hyporesponsive to TCR ligation
5 Synovial T cells exist in an environment favouring cell survival
6 There is an imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, with a predominance of macrophage products in inflamed joints
7 There is a bias towards the development of T helper (Th)1 cells