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Table 1 Examples of molecules that regulate angiogenesis

From: Angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis

Effect on angiogenesis Type of molecule Molecule
Angiogenic stimuli Growth factors FGF-1* and FGF-2*, HGF*
   Placental growth factor*
   Platelet-derived endothelial-cell growth factor*
   PDGF-BB*
   TGF-α, TGF-β *
   VEGF*
  Cytokines and other mediators Angiogenin*
   Ang-1*
   Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor*
   IL-8*
   Midkine, Pleiotrophin
   TNFα*
Angiogenesis inhibitors Cryptic proteins Angiostatin (plasminogen fragment)
   Endostatin (collagen XVIII fragment)
   Fibronectin fragment
   Kringle 5 (plasminogen fragment)
   Prolactin 16-kDa fragment
   Vasostatin (calreticulin fragment)
  Cytokines and other mediators Cartilage-derived inhibitor
   Interferon-inducible protein (IP-10)
   IL-12
   Metalloproteinase inhibitors (TIMPs)
   Plasminogen activator inhibitor
   Platelet factor-4
   Thrombospondin-1
  1. *Expressed in RA. Ang, angiopoietin; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; TGF, transforming growth factor; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.