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Table 2 Examples of angiogenesis inhibitors in clinical trials

From: Angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis

Action of drug Drug Examples of clinical trials Mode of action
Direct inhibition of endothelial cells Thalidomide Phase III non-small-cell lung cancer Inhibits endothelial cells directly
  Endostatin Phase I solid tumour Inhibits endothelial cells
Inhibition of the binding of angiogenic stimuli Humanised monoclonal anti-human VEGF (bevacizumab) Phase II metastatic renal cell cancer; phase III with chemotherapy in untreated metastatic colorectal cancer Monoclonal antibody to VEGF
Inhibition of events downstream of angiogenic stimuli SU6668 Phase I against advanced tumours Blocks VEGF, FGF, PDGF receptor signalling
  SU5416 Phase I recurrent head and neck; phase II prostate cancer Blocks VEGF receptor signalling
Inhibition of matrix breakdown Marimastat Phase III small-cell lung cancers Synthetic MMP inhibitor
  BMS-275291 Phase II/III metastatic non-small-cell lung Synthetic MMP inhibitor
Inhibition of endothelial-integrin interactions EMD121974 Phase I in patients with HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma Small molecule blocker of integrin on endothelium
  1. FGF, fibroblast growth factor; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.