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Table 2 Intra-articular effects of various genes following direct delivery to the synovial lining of normal rabbits knees

From: Lessons learned from gene transfer approaches

  Effect*
    Cartilage  
Gene Edema synovitis synthesis Breakdown
TNF + ++ - - ++
TGF- β 1 +++ + ± ++
IGF-1 0 0 ++ 0
BMP-2 0 0 ++ 0
iNOS 0 + 0 0
  1. *Effects are graded on a scale from 0 = no effect to+++ = large stimulatory effect to - - - = large inhibitory effect.Delivery of the TGF-β 1 gene was associated with theintrasynovial formation of cartilage. Delivery of the iNOS gene was associatedwith neovascularization of synovium. TNF, tumor necrosis factor; TGF,transforming growth factor; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; BMP, bonemorphogenetic protein; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase.