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Table 1 Sources of multipotential adult mesenchymal stem cells

From: Adult mesenchymal stem cells and cell-based tissue engineering

Source tissue Multilineage differentiation potential Representative references
Bone marrow Adipocyte [26, 143]
  Astrocyte, neuron [12, 137]
  Cardiomyocyte [14, 15, 131133]
  Chondrocyte [26, 46, 76, 79]
  Hepatocyte [6, 7, 144]
  Mesangial cell [13]
  Muscle [10, 35]
  Neuron [11, 12]
  Osteoblast [26, 33, 43, 145147]
  Stromal cell [148]
  Various embryonic tissue lineages [139]
Muscle Adipocyte, myotubes, osteocyte [138]
  Endothelial cell, neuron [20, 149]
  Chondrocyte [112]
  Osteocyte [20]
Trabecular bone Adipocyte, chondrocyte, osteoblast [2729]
Dermis Adipocyte, chondrocyte, muscle, osteoblast [21]
Adipose tissue Chondrocyte, muscle, osteoblast [16]
  Stromal cell [150]
Periosteum Chondrocyte, osteoblast [17, 18]
Pericyte Chondrocyte [22]
  Osteoblast [23, 24]
Blood Adipocyte, fibroblast, osteoblast, osteoclast [25]
Synovial membrane Adipocyte, chondrocyte, muscle, osteoblast [18]