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Table 1 Typical uses, upper range of reported exposure levels, and recommended exposure limits for solvents reported to be associated with connective tissue diseases

From: Epidemiology of organic solvents and connective tissue disease

   Exposure levels ACGIH TLV:
Solvent Typical industrial uses (mg/m3) 8 h TWA (mg/m3)
Benzene Petroleum refining product; a component of gasoline [83] 0.1–27.2 1.6
Toluene Tire vulcanization 5.66 188
  Leather finishing 735  
  Hospital laboratory 47.5  
  General manufacturing [84] 452  
Xylene Hospital laboratory 1700 434
  General manufacturing [84] 61  
Trichloroethane Nonflammable cold cleaning solvent; used alone or blended [4] Not typically 1910
   used in  
   consumer products  
Trichloroethylene Nonflammable liquid that dissolves fats, greases, tars, and waxes;   269
  used for cold cleaning [4].   
  Degreasing [85] 4833  
  Also used in typographic correction fluids [86]   
Perchloroethylene Nonflammable liquid used in cold cleaning where slow   170
  evaporation is desired [4]   
  Degreasing 12204  
  Dry cleaning [85] 3899  
VM & P naphtha Paint thinner with a boiling point range of 100–160°C [3]   1370
Mineral spirits Moderate flammability solvent with a boiling point range   525
(Stoddard solvent) of 149–205°C; dissolves oil and grease [4]   
  Commonly used in dry cleaning and as a paint thinner   
  1. ACGIH, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists;TLV, threshold limit value; TWA, time weighted average; VM & P, varnishmaker's and painter's.