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Table 1 Comparison between patients with rheumatoid arthritis and control individuals according to sex

From: Smoking–gender interaction and risk for rheumatoid arthritis

  Women Men
  RA cases (n = 777) Controls (n = 1104) P RA cases (n = 318) Controls (n = 426) P
Age in years (mean ± SD) 62 ± 13 56 ± 15 <0.001 63 ± 12 53 ± 14 <0.001
Education in years (mean ± SD) 9.7 ± 3.8 10.9 ± 4.0 <0.001 8.6 ± 3.3 10.8 ± 4.2 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2; mean ± SD) 26 ± 4.6 25 ± 4.6 0.54 26 ± 3.8 27 ± 3.7 0.62
Proportion currently smoking (%) 7 14 <0.001 18 21 0.83
Proportion past smokers (%) 16 22 0.02 66 50 <0.001
HAQ disability index (mean ± SD)* 0.89 ± 0.8 0.30 ± 0.6 <0.001 0.68 ± 0.8 0.21 ± 0.5 <0.001
General health VAS (mean ± SD) 35.1 ± 22 22.4 ± 22 <0.001 31.8 ± 21 20.8 ± 22 <0.001
Pain VAS (mean ± SD) 34 ± 25 21 ± 25 <0.001 29 ± 23 19 ± 23 <0.001
  1. *Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability index (range 0–3); visual analog scale (VAS; range 0–100, best to worst). BMI, body mass index; RA, rheumatoid arthritis.