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Table 2 Cytokines in the synovial fluid and cartilage tissue

From: Cytokine profiles in the joint depend on pathology, but are different between synovial fluid, cartilage tissue and cultured chondrocytes

Synovial fluid Cartilage
Cytokines (per ml SF) Healthy (n= 20) Defect (n=31) Osteoarthritis (n= 27) Pvalue Cytokines per g tissue Healthy (n= 9) Defect (n= 16) Osteoarthritis (n= 27) Pvalue
IL-1α (pg/ml) 16 ± 10 (100%) 14 ± 8 (100%) 15 ± 22 (89%) 0.085 IL-1α (pg/g) 5 ± 13 (22%) 366 ± 706 (25%) 183 ± 391 (26%) 0.470
IL-1β (pg/ml) 1 ± 2 (25%) 15 ± 18 (55%) 8 ± 16 (41%) 0.032 IL-1β (pg/g) 0 ± 0 (0%) 23 ± 63 (13%) 0 ± 1 (4%) 0.336
IL-4 (pg/ml) 0 ± 0 (0%) 2 ± 3 (32%) 1 ± 4 (15%) 0.026 IL-4 (pg/g) 0 ± 0 (0%) 1 ± 2 (13%) 0 ± 1 (7%) 0.261
IL-6a (pg/ml) 64 ± 120 (40%) 261 ± 385 (96%) 396 ± 508 (82%) <0.001* IL-6 (pg/g) 1064 ± 3193 (11%) 1473 ± 3162 (19%) 935 ± 2739 (19%) 0.752
IL-7 (pg/ml) 0 ± 0 (0%) 0 ± 0 (0%) 5 ± 28 (4%) 0.459      
IL-8 (pg/ml) 25 ± 29 (75%) 27 ± 33 (59%) 52 ± 95 (85%) 0.352 IL-8, ng/g 12 ± 20 (67%) 10 ± 30 (31%) 15 ± 44 (48%) 0.442
IL-10 (pg/ml) 1 ± 6 (5%) 0 ± 0 (0%) 9 ± 35 (15%) 0.134 IL-10 (pg/g) 0 ± 0 (0%) 812 ± 2113 (13%) 578 ± 1650 (15%) 0.400
IL-13 (pg/ml) 1 ± 2 (5%) 38 ± 41 (64%) 18 ± 40 (33%) <0.001* IL-13 (pg/g) 0 ± 0 (0%) 799 ± 1641 (25%) 250 ± 648 (15%) 0.121
TNFα (pg/ml) 0 ± 0 (0%) 2 ± 8 (9%) 4 ± 20 (11%) 0.324 TNFα (pg/g) 522 ± 1084 (22%) 3069 ± 4453 (25%) 1733 ± 3212 (30%) 0.467
IFNγ (pg/ml) 47 ± 17 (100%) 68 ± 38 (100%) 51 ± 69 (93%) 0.001* IFNγ (pg/g) 0 ± 0 (0%) 226 ± 848 (13%) 0 ± 0 (0%) 0.101
OSM (pg/ml) 2 ± 7 (5%) 22 ± 46 (64%) 38 ± 121 (22%) 0.001* OSM (pg/g) 66 ± 108 (44%) 170 ± 241 (38%) 220 ± 424 (37%) 0.786
      LIF (pg/g) 0 ± 0 (0%) 2797 ± 6515 (13%) 3529 ± 10164 (22%) 0.279
      Adiponectin (μg/g) 12 ± 10 (100%) 57 ± 62 (88%) 19 ± 29 (100%) 0.002
      Leptin (ng/g) 15 ± 29 (33%) 120 ± 169 (63%) 112 ± 136 (83%) 0.026
      MCP1 (pg/g) 182 ± 423 (22%) 1336 ± 1711 (50%) 1249 ± 1250 (68%) 0.044
      RANTES (pg/g) 0 ± 0 (0%) 1225 ± 2163 (31%) 510 ± 1121 (22%) 0.056
      bFGF (ng/g) 129 ± 335 (44%) 439 ± 691 (69%) 615 ± 719 (74%) 0.055
      HGF (pg/g) 3171 ± 6757 (56%) 5824 ± 5110 (69%) 2986 ± 3452 (74%) 0.113
      VEGF (ng/g) 19 ± 11 (100%) 212 ± 149 (88%) 49 ± 28 (100%) <0.001*
      IL-1RA (pg/g) 495 ± 1017 (22%) 1856 ± 3172 (25%) 2504 ± 10792 (33%) 0.573
  1. The presence of cytokines was measured in synovial fluid (SF) and cartilage tissue extracts from healthy donors and donors with symptomatic cartilage defects and osteoarthritic donors. Results are represented as mean ± standard deviation (% of samples in which the cytokine was present). Differences in cytokine levels between healthy, cartilage defect and OA donors were determined using the Kruskall–Wallis test (P values shown in table) with post hoc Mann–Whitney U test: synovial fluid ± IL-6: H vs. CD, P <0.001; H vs. OA, P = 0.001; IL-13: H vs. CD, P <0.001; H vs. OA, P = 0.018; CD vs. OA, P = 0.029; IFNγ: H vs. CD, P = 0.008; H vs. OA, P = 0.05; CD vs. OA, P = 0.001; OSM: H vs. CD, P <0.001; CD vs. OA, P = 0.030; tissue ± VEGF: H vs. CD, P <0.001; H vs. OA, P = 0.003; CD vs. OA, P <0.001. bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; CD, cartilage defect; H, healthy; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; IFNγ, interferon gamma; IL, interleukin; LIF, leukaemia inhibitory factor; MCP1, monocyte chemotactic factor 1; OA, osteoarthritis; OSM, oncostatin M; RANTES, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and presumably secreted; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor alpha; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. *P <0.001. aData published previously [15].