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Table 3 Cytokines produced by chondrocytes in native tissue and in culture per cell

From: Cytokine profiles in the joint depend on pathology, but are different between synovial fluid, cartilage tissue and cultured chondrocytes

  Tissue Unexpanded chondrocytes Expanded chondrocytes
Cytokine (per mg DNA) Healthy (n= 9) Defect (n= 16) Osteoarthritis (n= 27) Pvalue Healthy (n= 8) Defect (n= 10) Osteoarthritis (n= 12) Pvalue Healthy (n= 15) Defect (n= 13) Osteoarthritis (n= 13) Pvalue
IL-1α (pg/mg) 5 ± 12 198 ± 630 408 ± 1,062 0.844 439 ± 268 993 ± 743 460 ± 271 0.006 1,718 ± 2,689 1,978 ± 1,464 2,569 ± 2,528 0.006
IL-1β (pg/mg) 0 ± 0 14 ± 41 0 ± 2 0.336 14 ± 33 816 ± 968 125 ± 151 <0.001* 283 ± 368 369 ± 270 459 ± 408 0.010
IL-4 (pg/mg) 0 ± 0 0 ± 1 0 ± 1 0.536 18 ± 49 18 ± 40 40 ± 76 0.691 148 ± 224 200 ± 163 263 ± 259 0.002
IL-6 (pg/mg) 4,813 ± 14,438 678 ± 1,867 1,840 ± 6,389 0.928 1,715 ± 397 1,739 ± 437 1,918 ± 77 0.037 423 ± 414 136 ± 268 721 ± 319 <0.001*
IL-7 (pg/mg)      1,288 ± 378 1,120 ± 547 1,304 ± 619 0.457 300 ± 401 411 ± 343 545 ± 555 0.008
IL-8 (ng/mg) 39 ± 94 7 ± 23 28 ± 102 0.192 1,070 ± 572 786 ± 625 784 ± 399 0.036 28 ± 36 36 ± 43 113 ± 85 <0.00*
IL-10 (pg/mg) 0 ± 0 252 ± 783 969 ± 3,344 0.483 3,021 ± 2,455 16,529 ± 20,669 4,925 ± 3,429 0.015 5,200 ± 6,788 6,524 ± 4,806 9,471 ± 9,333 0.029
IL-13 (ng/mg) 0 ± 0 378 ± 783 545 ± 1,531 0.296 2,027 ± 597 3,249 ± 1,155 2,936 ± 1,220 0.002 4,486 ± 6,088 5,614 ± 3,730 6,787 ± 5,935 0.006
TNFα (pg/mg) 499 ± 1,020 2,054 ± 4,520 3,567 ± 8,065 0.714 253 ± 184 414 ± 346 426 ± 452 0.319 183 ± 221 217 ± 148 310 ± 315 0.154
IFNγ (pg/mg) 0 ± 0 175 ± 677 0 ± 0 0.101 50 ± 214 54 ± 245 173 ± 636 0.615 538 ± 866 720 ± 767 1,036 ± 1,287 0.079
OSM (pg/mg) 156 ± 279 135 ± 239 394 ± 776 0.963 111 ± 164 2,736 ± 3,990 369 ± 640 0.138 26 ± 37 26 ± 23 46 ± 55 0.135
LIF (ng/mg) 0 ± 0 1 ± 4 5 ± 13 0.238 76 ± 50 194 ± 127 97 ± 56 0.005 38 ± 37 23 ± 16 48 ± 24 0.000*
Adiponectin (ng/mg) 15,700 ± 12,550 60,900 ± 74,720 20,000 ± 26,960 0.238 1,582 ± 903 3,689 ± 5,136 1,777 ± 1,220 0.723 20 ± 31 22 ± 21 36 ± 41 0.022
Leptin (ng/mg) 14 ± 29 75 ± 151 161 ± 199 0.009 22 ± 7 26 ± 7 22 ± 9 0.125 22 ± 24 29 ± 18 35 ± 27 0.014
MCP1 (pg/mg) 672 ± 1,890 806 ± 1,067 2,216 ± 3,780 0.068 376 ± 148 626 ± 474 331 ± 219 0.065 43 ± 14 38 ± 20 53 ± 49 0.176
RANTES (pg/mg) 0 ± 0 986 ± 2,687 1,074 ± 2,852 0.208 129 ± 149 63 ± 80 106 ± 89 0.057 3 ± 4 1 ± 1 4 ± 4 0.034
bFGF (ng/mg) 196 ± 527 514 ± 762 760 ± 923 0.089 12 ± 15 39 ± 68 11 ± 18 0.427 20 ± 17 23 ± 14 34 ± 26 0.021
HGF (pg/mg) 3,262 ± 6,163 5763 ± 10,551 3,911 ± 4,661 0.565 151 ± 243 431 ± 470 353 ± 534 0.118 4,243 ± 6,533 5,314 ± 4,061 7,242 ± 7,595 0.004
VEGF (ng/mg) 33 ± 22 173 ± 133 66 ± 53 <0.001* 638 ± 468 828 ± 522 742 ± 298 0.333 126 ± 23 133 ± 29 124 ± 25 0.610
IL-1RA (pg/mg) 475 ± 960 990 ± 1938 1,871 ± 7,209 0.868 2,611 ± 2,167 20,259 ± 2,3520 11,005 ± 17,284 0.002 349 ± 260 433 ± 260 579 ± 442 0.031
IL-6Rα (pg/mg)      8,217 ± 2,190 5,397 ± 5,195 4,666 ± 5,094 0.037 3,276 ± 10,387 593 ± 324 456 ± 333 0.064
  1. To compare the production of cytokines by chondrocytes in their native tissue (tissue extracts) and during culture (conditioned media day 7, both nonexpanded and expanded chondrocytes), cytokine production was evaluated per DNA in samples from healthy cartilage, debrided cartilage from defects and osteoarthritic cartilage. Results are represented as mean ± standard deviation. Differences in cytokine levels between healthy, cartilage defect and OA donors were determined using the Kruskall–Wallis test (P values shown in table) with post hoc Mann–Whitney U test: tissue ± VEGF: H vs. CD, P = 0.002; H vs. OA, P = 0.024; CD vs. OA, P = 0.002; unexpanded chondrocytes – IL-1β: H vs. CD, P <0.001; H vs. OA, P = 0.002; CD vs. OA, P = 0.013; expanded chondrocytes ± IL-6: H vs. CD, P <0.001; H vs. OA, P <0.001; CD vs. OA, P <0.001; IL-8: H vs. OA, P <0.001; CD vs. OA, P <0.001; H vs. OA, P = 0.008; CD vs. OA, P <0.001. bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; CD, cartilage defect; H, healthy; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; IFNγ, interferon gamma; IL, interleukin; LIF, leukaemia inhibitory factor; MCP1, monocyte chemotactic factor 1; OA, osteoarthritis; OSM, oncostatin M; RANTES, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and presumably secreted; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor alpha; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. *P <0.001.