Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of studies on rheumatoid arthritis and fish consumption

From: Fish consumption and risk of rheumatoid arthritis: a dose-response meta-analysis

Author, year Study population, country, follow-up period/study period Cases/cohort size or controls Gender, age (years) Relative risk/odds ratio (95% CI) Controlled variables NOQAS2
Cohort       
Pedersen et al., 2005 [12] Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, Denmark, 1993 to 2001 69/56 691 Men and women, 50 to 64 Per 30 g/day: 0.91 (0.68, 1.23) Age and gender 6
Benito-Garcia, 2007 [11] Nurses' Health Study, USA, 1980 to 2002 546/82 063 Women, 30 to 55 Q1 (median 0.07 s/d1): 1.00 (ref) Age, total energy intake, body mass index, smoking, total lifetime breastfeeding 7
Q2 (0.13 s/d): 0.94 (0.73, 1.23)
Q3 (0.17 s/d): 1.09 (0.81, 1.47)
Q4 (0.25 s/d): 1.06 (0.80, 1.40)
Q5 (0.44 s/d): 0.96 (0.72, 1.26)
Di Giuseppe et al., 2013 [7] Swedish Mammography Cohort, 2003 to 2010 205/32 232 Women, 54 to 89 <1 s/w1 nel 1987, <1 s/w nel 1997: Age, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, use of aspirin, red meat consumption, dairy food consumption, energy intake 8
1.00 (ref)
≥1 s/w nel 1987, <1 s/w nel 1997:
0.78 (0.50, 1.22)
<1 s/w nel 1987, ≥1 s/w nel 1997:
1.01 (0.66, 1.56)
≥1 s/w nel 1987, ≥1 s/w nel 1997:
0.71 (0.48, 1.04)
Case-control       
Linos et al., 1991 [9] Hospital-based controls, Greece 168/137 Men and women, 24 to 89 1-2 s/m1: 1.00 (ref) Age and gender 5
4-10 s/m: 0.64 (0.38, 1.08)
12+ s/m: 0.37 (0.13, 1.05)
Shapiro et al., 1996 [14] Population-based controls, USA, 1986 to 1991 324/1245 Women, 18 to 64 <1 s/w: 1.00 (ref) Reference age, reference year, education, race, total caloric intake 8
1- <2 s/w: 0.87
(0.62, 1.21)
≥2 s/w: 0.92 (0.67, 1.25)
Linos et al., 1999 [13] Hospital-based controls, Greece 145/188 Men and women, 18 to 84 Q1 (median 3 s/w): 1.00 (ref) Age and gender 5
Q2 (4 s/w): 1.21 (0.64, 2.29)
Q3 (6 s/w): 0.90 (0.47, -1.71)
Q4 (10 s/w): 0.95 (0.46, 1.96)
Rosell et al., 2009 [10] Population-based controls (EIRA), Sweden, 1996 to 2005 1889/2145 Men and women, 18 to 70 Never/seldom: 1.00 (ref) Age, residential area, smoking, gender 6
1-3 s/m: 0.8 (0.7, 1.0)
1-7 s/w: 0.8 (0.6, 1.0)
  1. Information on fish consumption was collected using food frequency questionnaires in all studies. 1s/d = servings per day, s/w = servings per week, s/m = servings per month. NOQAS, Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (score from 0 as poor to 9 as excellent).