Relationship of blood-brain barrier integrity and serum anti-Sm with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) anti-Sm in NPSLE. In upper panels, Q albumin values were 2.84 ± 1.29 (mean ± SD) in non-SLE neurological control and 6.05 ± 8.56 in NPSLE: 12.48 ± 13.80 in acute confusional state (ACS), 4.14 ± 4.20 in non-ACS diffuse NPSLE, 3.22 ± 2.94 in focal NPSLE. Horizontal lines indicate median. In lower panels, correlation between CSF anti-Sm and Q albumin and that between CSF anti-Sm and serum anti-Sm were evaluated by Spearman’s rank correlation test. NPSLE: neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus; SD: standard deviation.