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Table 4 Summary statistics of the costs (total and disaggregated in components) and outcomes by treatment group

From: Cost-utility of cognitive behavioral therapy versus U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommended drugs and usual care in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia: an economic evaluation alongside a 6-month randomized controlled trial

  CBT RPT TAU Significance test
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Before baseline (6 months before baseline) -N=168 n=57 n=56 n=55 Pvalue adj.Pvalue
Costs (€)         
Primary health care services 102.7 21.9 103.1 21.5 104.3 14.5 0.87 0.99
Specialized healthcare services 1554.9 3499.8 1150.0 3113.1 1038.3 2813.4 0.67 0.55
Medical tests 49.2 113.7 48.2 103.8 48.5 101.4 1.00 0.97
Prescribed medications 475.7 876.6 563.0 1139.3 581.2 1196.7 0.83 0.80
Total direct costs 2182.4 3609.6 1864.3 3232.8 1772.3 2954.4 0.79 0.71
Total indirect costs 916.3 1415.3 741.8 1379.5 771.2 1335.5 0.77 0.81
Total costs 3098.8 3999.7 2606.1 3871.2 2543.5 3486.3 0.71 0.62
Outcomes         
EQ-5D Utility score 0.40 0.26 0.40 0.27 0.38 0.27 0.93 1.00
EQ VAS 45.18 16.98 46.79 15.48 43.36 14.50 0.50 0.64
Follow-up (0 to 6 months), N =152 n =53 n =50 n =49 P- value adj. P -value
Costs (€)         
Primary health care services 80.9 35.4 110.8 19.6 112.6 19.5 0.00 0.00
Specialized healthcare services 940.2 2731.7 1854.4 4109.2 1663.5 3612.7 0.32 0.01
Medical tests 44.7 115.8 67.3 119.2 65.9 110.6 0.54 0.00
Prescribed medications 33.0 55.3 828.1 356.5 530.8 322.0 0.00 0.00
Intervention CBT 271.1 24.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00 0.00
Total direct costs 1,369.9 2,738.5 2,860.6 4,161.3 2,372.8 3,570.2 0.07 0.00
Total indirect costs 476.8 887.6 803.0 1,307.6 750.9 1,226.3 0.21 0.00
Total costs 1,846.7 2,942.9 3,663.7 4,539.1 3,123.7 3,952.5 0.03 0.00
Outcomes         
EQ-5D Utility score 0.61 0.25 0.53 0.27 0.54 0.28 0.28 0.13
EQ VAS 59.62 15.78 57.30 14.11 52.86 14.25 0.07 0.00
QALY (based on EQ-5D utility score) 0.25 0.12 0.23 0.13 0.24 0.13 0.63 0.13