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Table 3 Sensory and sympathetic receptors and neurotransmitters expressed in cells and tissues of diathrodial joints

From: The role of peripheral nerve fibers and their neurotransmitters in cartilage and bone physiology and pathophysiology

Receptors and tissue (cells) Neurotransmitters and tissue (cells)
NK1R Substance P
Chondrocytes of articular cartilage Chondrocytes of articular cartilage
Chondrocytes of costal cartilage Chondrocytes of costal cartilage
Proliferating and hypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate Proliferating and hypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate
Chondrocytes of OA cartilage Chondrocytes of OA cartilage
Chondrocytes from fracture callus Chondrocytes from fracture callus
Osteoblasts  
Osteoclasts and precursors (bone marrow-derived macrophages)  
BMSCs BMSCs
Synovial fibroblasts Synovial fibroblasts
  Synovial fluid
CL receptor/RAMP Calcitonin gene-related peptide
Osteoblasts Osteoblasts
Osteoclasts  
BMSCs BMSCs
  Synovial fluid
β-Adrenoceptors Tyrosine-hydroxylase (rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine synthesis)
Chondrocytes of articular cartilage (β2-AR) Chondrocytes of the cartilage deep zone
Chondrocytes of costal cartilage (β2-AR) Costal chondrocytes
Chondrocytes of growth plates (all zones) (β2-AR) Hypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate
Chondrocytes of OA cartilage (β2-AR)  
Chondrogenic progenitor cells from OA cartilage (β2-AR, in vitro)  
Osteoblasts (β2-AR) Osteoblasts
Osteoclasts and precursors (bone marrow-derived macrophages) Osteoclasts
BMSCs (β2/β3-AR) Proliferating and chondrogenic/differentiating BMSCs in vitro
Synovial cells Synovial cells during RA pathogenesis
  Synovial fluid
α1-Adrenoceptors  
Chondrocytes of OA articular cartilage  
Chondrocytes in fracture callus  
Mesenchymal cells in fracture callus  
α2-Adrenoceptors  
Chondrocytes of articular cartilage  
Chondrocytes of the growth plate (different zones)  
Chondrocytes of fracture callus  
Mesenchymal cells of fracture callus  
Osteoblasts  
Osteoclasts and precursors (bone marrow-derived macrophages)  
Synovial cells  
VIP receptors VIP
Osteoclasts (VIP-1/-2) and PACAP Synovial fluid
Osteoblasts (VIP-1/-2) OA cartilage (?)
Bone marrow-derived macrophages (PACAP)  
Synovial cells (VIP-1/-2)  
  1. AR, adrenoceptor; BMSC, bone marrow-derived stem cell; CL, calcitonin gene-related peptide; NK1R, neurokinin 1 receptor; OA, osteoarthritis; PACAP, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RAMP, receptor activity-modifying protein; VIP, vasoactive intestinal peptide.