An increased frequency of circulating plasmablasts in rheumatoid arthritis patients with active disease (RA-a) is correlated with the frequency of circulating follicular helper T cells (cTfh). (A) Patients RA-a but not with rheumatoid arthritis in remission (RA-r) demonstrate an increased frequency of circulating plasmablasts. Shown are representative dot plots of CD20 and CD38 expression on cells gated for CD19 (left panel), together with box and whisker plots representing the median, interquartile range, maximum and minimum values calculated from 17 RA-a patients, 17 RA-r patients and 34 healthy controls (HC) (right panel). *P <0.01 versus HC. (B) The frequency of circulating plasmablasts in RA-a patients is positively correlated with the frequency of circulating Tfh counterparts and with the ratio (%Tfh-Th2 + %Tfh-Th17)/%Tfh-Th1 cells. (C) Relation of circulating plasmablast frequencies with disease activity as determined by disease activity in 28 joints (DAS28) score .