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Table 1 Examples of direct sympathetic neurotransmitter immune cell interactions

From: The sympathetic nervous response in inflammation

Cell type Source Receptor/neurotransmitter concentration Costimulus Main effect Reference
Macrophage Bone marrow, mouse NE 10−6 M LPS Decrease CCR2 [32]
NE 10−8 M, 10−6 M None Decrease BMM proliferation
NE 10−8 M LPS Increase maturation
NE 10−8 M, 10−6 M None Increase phagocytosis
NE 10−8 M, 10−6 M LPS Increase TNF
  Spleen, mouse NE 10−8 M LPS Increase TNF [29],[33]
  Spleen, mouse NE 10−6 M LPS Decrease TNF [29],[33]
  Peritoneum, mouse Neuropeptide Y   Increase HMGB1 [34]
Dendritic cell Bone marrow derived, mouse β2-AR NOD2 agonist Increase IL6 [35]
  TLR2 agonist Decrease IL-12
   β2-AR   Increase IL-33 [36]
   α2-AR   Increase in antigen uptake [37]
  Human cord blood NE 10−6 M LPS Decrease IL12p40, TNF, IL-6, IL-23 [38]
T cell Spleen, mouse β2-AR None Increase Treg apoptosis [39]
β2-AR Anti-CD3 Decrease IL-2 in CD4 + CD62L+ cells [40]
β2-AR None Increase in Treg mediated cell suppression
  CIA, mouse NE ConA Increase IFN-γ [41]
  Splenic naïve T cells β2-AR Anti-CD3 Decrease IL-2 [42]
Anti-CD28
   β2-AR Anti-CD3 Increase IFN-γ per Th1 cell [43]
Anti-CD28
IL-12
  T cell clone Neuropeptide Y None Decrease IFN-γ [44]
Increase IL-4
B cell CIA, mouse β2-AR Anti-CD40/IL-4 Increase IL-10 [45]
   β2-AR Anti-CD40/IL-4 Inhibits IL-7 receptor signaling [46]
  Naïve, splenic B cells β2-AR CD40L/IL-4 Increase IgG1, IgE [47],[48]
  1. AR, adrenoceptor; BMM, bone marrow-derived macrophages; CCR2, C-C chemokine receptor type 2; CIA, collagen-induced arthritis; ConA, Concanavalin A; HMGB1, high-mobility-group-protein B1; IFN, interferon; Ig, immunoglobulin; IL, interleukin; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; NE, norepinephrine; NO2, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2; Th1, T helper 1; TLR2, toll-like receptor 2; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; Treg, regulatory T cell.