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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the propensity score–matched cohorts in the 180 days prior to initiation of amitriptyline, duloxetine, gabapentin, or pregabalin a

From: Patterns of health care utilization related to initiation of amitriptyline, duloxetine, gabapentin, or pregabalin in fibromyalgia

  Amitriptyline Pregabalin Duloxetine Pregabalin Gabapentin Pregabalin
Number of patients 8,269 8,269 9,941 9,941 18,613 18,613
Demographics      
  Age (yr) 47.7 ± 12.4 47.7 ± 11.7 48.3 ± 11.6 48.2 ± 11.4 50.0 ± 12.6 50.0 ± 11.8
  Female 79.6 79.8 82.0 82.0 77.3 77.6
Comorbidities      
  Back pain 52.4 52.5 55.3 55.7 63.2 63.3
  Headache 26.0 26.3 22.2 22.6 21.6 21.7
  Depression 10.6 10.5 16.3 16.7 12.0 12.1
  Anxiety 12.6 12.7 15.9 16.6 13.0 13.0
  Abdominal pain 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.5 3.6
  Neuropathic pain 25.4* 33.4* 30.4* 36.1* 41.6* 40.5*
  Sleep disorder 16.7 16.2 18.3 18.4 16.5 16.5
  Diabetes 11.5 11.3 12.7 12.8 15.9 15.8
  Hypertension 29.8 30.0 31.6 31.2 35.7 35.7
  Cardiovascular disease 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 3.0 2.9
  Stroke 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.0 4.0 3.8
  Inflammatory arthritis 10.8 10.7 12.9 13.2 13.6 13.9
  Malignancy 4.5 4.6 4.8 4.6 5.9 5.8
  Comorbidity index scoreb 0.5 ± 1.0 0.5 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 1.0 0.7 ± 1.2 0.7 ± 1.2
Medications
  Opioids 55.3 56.1 59.8 59.5 68.2 68.5
  TCAsc 10.9 10.4 3.9 3.9 4.8 4.7
  SSRIs 18.4 17.7 22.1 22.6 21.4 21.6
  SNRIsd 5.4 5.7 17.8 17.1 8.6 8.7
  Anticonvulsantse 12.5 11.8 17.5 17.3 39.0 39.0
  Other antidepressants 11.4 11.7 17.1 17.3 15.4 15.6
  BZDs 29.9 29.7 36.5 36.6 35.2 35.2
  Sleeping disorder drugsf 19.9 20.2 23.3 22.6 21.3 21.9
  Migraine drugs 8.3 8.7 7.4 7.7 6.9 6.9
  Muscle relaxants 31.1 31.6 33.2 33.2 39.3 39.6
  Topical analgesics 3.5 3.6 4.5 4.7 6.7 6.8
  Oral steroids 26.5 26.2 26.3 26.3 31.0 31.3
  NSAIDs 33.6 33.4 35.0 34.9 40.4 40.8
  GI protective drugs 21.9 21.9 22.6 22.5 25.2 25.4
Health care utilizationg
  Outpatient visits, n 7.4 ± 6.9* 7.7 ± 7.3 8.3 ± 7.5 8.2 ± 8.2 8.8 ± 8.4* 8.6 ± 8.1
  PCP visits, n 3.6 ± 3.6 3.5 ± 3.5 3.8 ± 3.5 3.7 ± 3.7 3.9 ± 4.2* 3.8 ± 3.7
  Specialist visits, n 5.9 ± 7.3* 6.4 ± 8.0 6.5 ± 7.9* 6.8 ± 9.4 7.6 ± 8.8 7.7 ± 9.5
  Prescription drugs, n 7.9 ± 5.4 8.0 ± 5.2 8.6 ± 5.4 8.6 ± 5.4 9.4 ± 5.7* 9.2 ± 5.6
  Acute hospitalizations, n 9.8* 10.9 9.9* 11.2 14.2* 13.3
  ED visits, n 11.8* 10.5 9.9 10.3 12.4* 10.9
  1. aBZDs, Benzodiazepines; ED, Emergency department; GI, Gastrointestinal; NSAIDs, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PCP, Primary care physician; SNRI, Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; SSRI, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; TCA, Tricyclic antidepressant. Data are expressed as percentage or mean ± SD. bDeyo-adapted Charlson Comorbidity Index [17,18]. cAll TCAs except amitriptyline. dAll SNRIs except duloxetine. eAll anticonvulsants except gabapentin and pregabalin. fNonbenzodiazepine drugs only. gNot included in the PS model. *Statistically significant difference compared to the reference group (P < 0.05).